DECANTER WITH RIBS of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire │ 1st century AD, probably 2nd – 3rd quarter
Size: ↑ 15,6 cm; Ø max. 9,6 cm; Ø rim 3,4 cm. │ Weight: 87 gram
Technique: Mold blown and free blown. Tooled.
Classification: Isings (1957) form 71.
Description: Transparent light aubergine coloured glass. Body first mold blown with ten ribs and then further free blown. Free blown cylindrical neck. Rim folded outward, upward and inward. Base flat, lightly pushed in upward. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact with iridescence and with some encrustation inside.
Remarks: In the 1st half of the 1st century AD coloured glass was strongly fashionable. Later on in that century bluish-green glass was getting more popular.
Bluish-green is the basic colour of Roman glass. This has been caused because sand (the main element for making raw glass) has been polluted by iron oxide. By addition of some percents manganese oxide in the raw glass the colour changed into aubergine / purple.
Provenance: 2011 Atticard Ltd, London.
Reference: Kunstwerke der Antike (Cahn Auktionen AG Basel), Auktion 7, 03-11-2012, no. 83 ( till 1986 in the private collection of P.M. Suter-Pongratz, Basel, no. 65).
Isings (1957) writes about form 71 “Of this type only a few specimens are known, several of them found at Pompeii (Napels Museum)”.
Dutch Jenever Glass of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Origin: the Netherlands around 1750.
Dimensions: H 17,0 cm.; ø cuppa 7,1 cm.; ø foot 7,4 cm.; weight 130,1 gram.
Description: This elegant jenever glass is quite rare regarding shape, construction and decoration. Jenever, in the old days written as genever, is the typical strong alcoholic Dutch drink not being the same as gin. The trumpet like cup and stem are made from one take of glass. The MSAT (Multiple Spiral Air Twist) in the stem starts at the bottom of the cup and continues almost to the foot of the glass being the second part of the construction of this glass. The unique feature to this glass is the incorporation of two graduated bulbous knops. The foot is slightly conical and the pontil is quite present in sight and feeling. The stem is made out of solid glass.
Material: soda glass.
Parallels: Up to now very few parallels to this glass have been found which strengthens the statement of Frides Laméris when we bought this glass saying that he had rarely seen glasses with this architecture. The closest parallel regarding the shape of the stem is in Bickerton, English Drinking glasses 1675 – 1825 pg. 15 top row second glass from the left. However, the shape of the cuppa of that glass is different from our glass. An engraved parallel was auctioned at Bonhams 17-12-2008, The James Hall Collection, Sale number 16672 lot nr. 120. A rather good parallel was found with O.N. Wilkinson, Manufacture, Style, Uses, pict. 82, having a folded foot and two so called swelling knops iso. the more bulbous knops and the not folded foot of our glass.
Provenance: With Frides Laméris, Amsterdam, In owners collection since 2001
FAÇON DE VENISE WINE GLASS of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Origen: Southern Netherlands around 1650
Dimensions: H: 15,1 cm.; ø cuppa 7,7, cm.; ø foot 9,6 cm.; weight 153,6 gram
Description: The cup shaped bowl is set via a directly attached merese to a short solid cylindrical part connecting to the first flattened hollow knop connecting thru another solid part to the second flattened hollow knop which connects to another short solid section finally connecting thru a flattened knob to the very wide almost flat folded foot. It seems that the multiple knopped stems – three or more – are more widely documented than the two knopped ones. In our opinion the two knopped ones are more rare than the three and more knopped ones. This based on publications known to us.
Material: Soda glass. (cristallo)
Parallels: (among st others)
– Jacqueline Bellanger, Histoire du Verre, pg. 108 (has three graduated knobs)
– Glass in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Vol. I pg. 36 pict. 31
– Catalogue Art Fair Den Bosch 2007, pg. 114 ((Laméris)
– Henkes, Glas zonder glans, (Glass without gloss) pg. 211.
– Vormen uit Vuur, nr. 197, 2007/1, back page.
– Glass collection ms. Ch. Loopuyt, the Hague
– Christies Amsterdam 2007,
– In owners collection since 2007.
Remarks on the type of stem and how the stem can help in dating this wine glass.
The stem of this Façon de Venise glass, with a slightly tapered rounded bucket bowl, is regarding the architecture quite specific for the period in which this glass was made. The glass was made in the Southern Netherlands most probably in an area around Liege approx. mid 17th century. For those not up-to-date on history, the Southern Netherlands, nowadays Belgium, were in those days a part of the Netherlands.
The stem architecture changed over time as glasses were made less exuberant making these available for a wider public. The exuberant glasses with the “wings” attached to the stems remained en vogue throughout the 17th century but disappeared gradually with more or less at the same time changes to the form and shape of the bowls. All in all the glasses became lets say more austere, this while becoming more balanced in form and shape. Harold E. Henkes describes one-another quite well in his book “Glass without gloss”, see page 211/213. From the less complicated designs, especially the bowls, the glasses lent themselves better to the arts of the glass engravers. So, many glasses fell to the hands of the engravers. Glasses from this period have most of the time a simple flat to slightly conical foot. However, like this glass there are still a lot of which the foot has a folded rim strengthening the foot.
Glasses with two hollow bulbous slightly flattened knops like the one shown here and ie. Henkes nr. 10 pg. 211, are more rare then the ones with one or three, or even more knops which can be found in many textbooks. One could make the hypothesis that the ones with two knops were for common use while the ones with three or more were more for the “upper classes” say for the show or perhaps the showcases. When one looks ie. at the finds in Rheine, “Glas funde aus einem unterirdischen Kanal” Falkenhof Museum, Rheine, a lot of high quality glasses, also from the upper classes, were broken and ended up in the cesspits.
The dry summing up of the constituent elements of the stem is like mentioning the type of paint used by ie. Rembrandt or El Greco, “killing” the artistry of the painter creating a piece of art, or in this case the skill and artistry of the glassmaker forming the stem in an almost perfect balance with the bowl.
The bowl is connected to the stem at first with a very thin merese followed by a short cylindrical solid section connecting to the first hollow flattened knob connection by a very thin merese, to a short solid cylindrical stub which connects to the second flattened hollow knob which connects via a very thin merese to a somewhat concave solid section finally connecting to the very wide, ø 9,6 cm, foot with folded rim. All in all, creating a robust but elegant glass ready to receive some good red wine.
In short, this stem architecture could be called a double hollow flattened spherical knop stem with a wide folded rim flat foot.
ROMAN GREEN GLASS CINERARY URN WITH LID of David Giles
Date 1st/2nd century AD Height: 22cm excluding lid.
Origin: These were found mainly in the Western Empire but some from North Africa and a few from Greece and Asia Minor.
Description: Body made from single piece of free blown glass with two M shaped handles applied and separate domed lid. The rim splayed out with tubular lip formed by turning the glass inwards. The two handles on opposing sides made with a thick trail of glass dropped first on the left side, lifted and dropped and action repeated to form the M shape. After final attachment on right hand side the excess glass was drawn up against the side of the handle. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact apart from crack on the rim.
Provenance: TEFAF Art Fair. Old German collection.
Remarks: Sometimes the tops were made in the form of a funnel to receive libations. They looked like inverted lids with a hole in the knop. However mostly the tops of these vessels were actual lids without an aperture in them.
Reference: LIGHTFOOT 2007 – Ancient Glass National Museums of Scotland Pages 107/108 items 247/249. WHITEHOUSE 1997 Roman Glass Volume 1, page 172/173 items 302/304, ISINGS 1957 Roman Glass Dated Finds Page 82 Item 63
USING ROMAN GLASS IN STILL LIFE PAINTINGS
Annelies Jonkhart (1945) is a well-known Dutch artist. Specialized in painting still life with a preference for objects with a ‘soul’ such as archaeological glass, but also living fruit and flowers. Yearly she takes part in exhibitions at art galleries in the Netherlands (e.g. Bonnard Gallery Nuenen, Wijdemeren Gallery, Staphorsius Gallery, O.L.Vrouwe Gallery Maastricht). For many years, her work also has been represented by galleries in the U.S.A. (Park City, Salt Lake City and Provo).
In 2004, she published her Monograph“Geboren in Geborgenheid’.
hLIEGE FAÇON DE VENISE GLASS of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Dimensions: H=18,6 cm.; H=stem 10,4 cm.; ø bowl 8,2 cm.; ø foot 8 cm.; weight 108 gram
Origin: Southern Netherlands, Liege, Date: mid-17th century.
Description: This quite impressive and elegant glass has a spiral wound trumpet bowl which was pre-formed in a ribbed mold after which it was optically blown out making the ribs more subdued and creating the nice swirl adding to the elegance of the completed glass. This optical technique was quite frequently used in the Liege area.
The stem is typical for the time and place in which this glass was made which can be described as a restraint elegance being quite different from the glasses coming from Venice but also from other areas even Liege, where at that time the exuberant so-called winged glasses were en vogue. The small pinched blue elements enhance the stem architecture, basically giving an elongating effect.
Material: soda glass.
Parallels: not found yet.
Provenance: – ex property of a Dutch lady, – Christies AMS 2698, lot no. 188
TWO PERFUME BOTTLES of Hans van Rossum
1st – 2nd century AD | Syro-Palestinian area for the tallest and Italy for the small example.
Size↑10.5 cm | Weight 8 g | L
Size↑15.0 cm | Weight 24 g | R
Technique: Free blown, tooled
Classification: Isings 1957 form 82 A1 | Calvi 1968 group Cγ1
Description: Two bottles of almost colorless and thin glass, small bell-shaped body with hollowed base, long and narrow tubular neck splaying slightly above constriction at the junction with the base for the tallest example. Rim folded outward and inward for the tallest example and unworked or knocked-off for the small example. No pontil-rest.
Condition: Intact with iridescence and some weathering
Remarks: The constriction at the junction with the body is the result of using a hand-held tool, marking the line between neck and blown body.
Provenance: Collection Albert Loncke, Overpelt (B) 1995
Reference: Roman Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass – Vol. I, D. Whitehouse no. 271
Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum, S.H. Auth no. 418, inv. no. 50.1689
Ancient Glass in the Yale University Art Gallery, S.B. Matheson nos. 158, 161 & 162
Les Verres antiques d’Arles, D. Foy nos. 363-365, 371, 373, 375, 386
Ancient Glass Collection, Türkiye Şişe ve Cam Fabrikalari A.Ş., Ű. Canav no. 58 & 59
BOWL WITH HORIZONTAL RIM of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire │ 2nd half 1st century – 2nd century AD
Size: ↑ 6,7 cm; Ø foot 6,6 cm; Ø rim 14,7 cm. │ Weight: 160 gram
Technique: Free blown. Tooled.
Classification: Isings (1957) form 42 a.
Description: Transparent bluish-green glass. Body with horizontal rim and convex walls, tapering downward. and there pushed in to form a round base ring. Almost the whole bottom pushed in upward. Round pontil mark.
Condition: Intact with strong iridescence.
Remarks: The Romans had many formes and types of bowls. They were initially mainly in pottery, but starting the second half of the first century AD ever more in glass.
Bowls of this type (Isings form 42 a) were produced everywhere in the Roman Empire and have been founded in large numbers.
Provenance: 2011 Dominique Thirion Ancient Art, Brussel. Before 2011 in a private French collection.
Reference: Verres Romaines (Ier – IIIme siècle) des Musées Curtius et du Verre à Liège
(M. Vanderhoeven, 1961), no. 41 and no. 42); Glas der antiken Welt (P. La Baume, 1974), no. D 2, Tafel 15,2; Antike Gläser – Ausstellung im Antikenmuseum Berlin (G. Platz-Horster,1975), no. 150, no. 151 and no. 152; Vetri Romani del Cantone Ticino (R. Carazzetti & S. Biaggio Simona, 1988), no. 66; Roman Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass – Vol. I (D. Whitehouse, 1997), no. 91; Les Verres Antiques du Musée du Louvre II
(V. Arveiller-Dulong & M-D. Nenna, 2005), no. 2.
LENTOID BOTTLE of Hans van Rossum
Date:4th century AD | Origin:Eastern Mediterranean
Size:↑14.5 cm | ø 8.3 cm | Weight 80 g
Technique: Free blown, handles and coil applied; tooled
Classification: Barag 1970 type IX 5
Description: Transparent pale green glass, globular and flattened body, wide and rounded tubular rim folded inward, long cylindrical neck with constriction at the junction with the body. Two angular turquoise colored handles with streaks of red glass, applied on the shoulder, drawn up and down, attached to the lower part of the neck. Neck coil made of two coil rings, pressed together to create one thick ring, top of the ring of red glass which is extremely rare. The bottom part of the coil in turquoise glass. Base with rest of pontil.
Condition: Intact, slightly incrustation and weathering
Provenance: Jerusalem art market, 10 King David Antiquities 1997
Published: De Oude Flesch, no. 134, 2013, p. Romeins Glas uit particulier bezit, J. van der Groen & H. van Rossum 2011, p. 83, Archaeological Center Tel Aviv, auction 11, 4 October 1993, lot 107
Exhibited: Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), Romeins Glas, geleend uit particulier bezit, no. 130, 29 April – 28 August 2011
Reference: Ancient and Islamic Glass in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, A. Oliver Jr. no. 189, Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum, J.W. Hayes no. 389, Ancient Glass in the Israel Museum, The Eliahu Dobkin Collection and Other Gifts, Y. Israeli no. 359
ROMAN JUGLET MADE FROM GREENISH GLASS of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Origin: Most probably Cyprus (Kunina) mid to late 1ste century AC. (Stern)
Dimensions: H = 14,3 cm.; largest ø ~ 8cm.; ø mouth 3,2 cm.; ø support ring 4,6 cm.; weight 66,3 grams.
Description: This charming little jug has a pyriform shaped body and a short cylindrical neck. The mouth has been folded outward-downward-upward-horizontal resulting in a kind of a collar. The elegant handle has been first set to the body of the object and was then pulled out to the mouth where it was fixed forming a small thumb rest. The handle was pinched to form the 8 ribs. With that decoration the handle has some resemblance with the so called long neck flask from the Hans v. Rossum collection. The juglet has been set on a small support ring being formed from the same paraison as the juglet itself.
Remarks: It’s amazing to see that more or less the same handle decoration developments were going on at very different locations almost at the same time. See again the long neck flask from the Hans v. Rossum collection, coming from the Rhineland and this one most probably coming from Cyprus.
Parallels: – Kunina, Ancient Glass in the Hermitage Collection, 176 pict. 145, pg. 302 nr.243 (Cyprus) (Joop v.d. Groen brought this one to my attention), – Metropolitan Museum of Art N.Y. acc.nr. 91.1.1266, – Ravagnan, Vetri antichi del Museo Vetrario di Murano, pg. 172 nr. 334 (smaller), – Stern, Römisches, byzantinisches und frühmittelalterliches Glas, 10 v.Chr – 700 n.Chr., Sammlung Ernesto Wolf, pg. 95 nr. 32 (13 cm.)
Provenance: – Collection Dr. Josef Mayer, Riefenthaler, Oostenrijk, acquired ~ 1960., – Galerie Günter Puhze.