Roman Glass Jug with Long Neck of Hans van Rossum
Third quarter of 1st century – first part of 2nd century AD | Production in the Northwestern part of the Roman Empire; said to be found in Nijmegen (NL) ancient Noviomagus
Size: ↑29.7 cm | ø 14.6 cm | Weight 440 g
Technique: Free blown, handle applied; tooled.
Classification: See Isings 1957 form 52b (for the specific long neck and the handle) and 55b (variant; conical body and concave base) | Morin-Jean 1913 form 58, fig. 142 (variant)
Description: Greenish glass, rounded conical, almost bulbous body. Diagonal folded rim, edge bent out, up, in and flattened, long, narrow cylindrical neck (↑ 13.0 cm.) with tooled constriction at junction with slightly convex body expanding out, open base ring, concave base, formed by a narrowing in the lower part of the belly. Angular ribbon handle with central rib in high relief, applied on upper body and attached to neck below rim, in a double fold, drawn up and attached to rim of edge. Excess glass snapped off. The lower handle terminal is formed as a three-pronged claw attachment, and the central projection is extended and decorated with a spur of nine tooled or pinched ‘teeth’. No pontil mark. This vessel is exceedingly rare and a masterpiece.
Condition: Small damage to the handle and a very small ancient times star crack (ø 0,7 cm.) on lower part of the body; visible but not touchable, so only on the inner side of the glass. (Professionally restored and consolidated by Restaura, Haelen NL.) Almost clear, area with slightly incrustation.
Remarks: The most important difference between this bottle and the usual examples of type Isings 55b lies in the shape of the belly, which is commonly conical or carinated. The rounded conical, almost bulbous body and open base ring for a ‘long-necked’ jug is extremely rare. Isings mentions one specimen with an identical rounded conical,almost bulbous body, from Bartlow Hills (UK), barrow I. The similarity with this jug is striking and the almost bulbous body makes them both exceedingly rare. This jug was, together with the other relics from Bartlow Hills,transferred to Easton Lodge, a nearby large house but unfortunately the jug and all the other relics have been lost in a fire that destroyed the house in 1847. (Mrs. Rosemarie Gant, on behalf of Ashdon Village Museum) Another very fine and comparable example is the jug from Esch (Hurk, van den 1986) and a second one which was part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum G. M. Kam at Nijmegen (NL) since 1956, now in the collection of Museum Valkhof at Nijmegen. All specimens with a production in the Northwestern part of the Roman Empire.
Provenance: Collection H. Libregts, Eindhoven (NL), acquired in 1990s.Formerly part of Dutch private collection.
Reference: The Tumuli from the Roman Period of Esch, Province of North Brabant, L.J.A.M. van den
Hurk fig. 11, p. 79, grave IV for an identical example with conical body and base ring but the neck is shorter than in comparison to my jug. This jug is part of the collection of the Noordbrabants Museum, s’Hertogenbosch (NL). Castleford, West Yorkshire: Fragmentary purple jug without decoration, from context dated AD 80 – 140 in vicus (Cool and Price 1998, 157 no. 51 fig. 53) for an identical example with conical body, base ring and the length of the neck. Museum Valkhof, Nijmegen. Inv. Nr.: 4.1955.6(1) Glass of the Caesars, D. B. Harden no. 69.
Literature: Roman Glass from dated finds, C. Isings 1957, form 52 and 55. Romano-British Glass Vessels: a Handbook, Price and Cottam 1998 pp. 150-156. The Tumuli from the Roman Period of Esch, Province of North Brabant, Hurk, van den, pp. 78 – 79. ATVATVCA 1, Roman Glass in Germania Inferior. Interregional Comparisons and Recent Results, G. Creemers, D. Demarsin & P. Cosyns, pp. 17-18 Letter from John Gage, Esquire, Director, to Hudson Gurney, Esq. Vice President, 8fc. accompanying a Plan of Sorrows called the Bartlow Hills, in the parish of Ashdon in Essex, with an account of Roman sepulchral relics recently discovered in the lesser Barrows’ by J. Gage in Archaeologia 25, 1834, pp. 1-23. ‘Rijksmuseum G. M. Kam’ in Verslagen der rijksverzamelingen van geschiedenis en kunst 77 (1956), pp. 189 – 201 by H.J.H. van Buchem.
The jar is a small square mold-blown aubergine colored glass with a short neck. There are two repeating geometrical patterns on the four sides and a floral pattern on the bottom.
7th – 8th Century
Israeli Museum #369, Kofler Collection #11
This is a earlier Roman ribbed bowl was probably not made by direct cast and slumping method. It may have been formed from a thick round disk. The ribs were formed hot with a pincer tool and then the disk was slumped into a bowl shape. The process is described in this link Ribbed Bowls and their Manufacture by Mark Taylor and David Hill. It is a class of bowls from the from the Eastern Mediterranean area with short, close-set ribs concentrated around the middle of the body. For the most part, such bowls are naturally colored, either bluish-green or light green, or intentionally decolorized. Small percentage occurs in cobalt-blue or other colors. The size of the bowls and thickness of the ribs vary.
H: 13 cm
Late First Century B.C. to Mid First Century A.D.
Opplander # 257, Sheppard #9, Toledo #236
MEROVINGIAN CONE BEAKER of Nico F. Bijnsdorp
Late 5th – early 6th century AD. Western Roman Empire.
H 12.0 cm. Drim 7.5 cm. Dbase 2.6 cm. Weight 77 gr.
Morin-Jean 1913: Form 107.
Harden 1956: Group III.
Intact. Excellently preserved.
Pattern-blown. Trail applied.
Transparent natural green, bubbly glass. White trail.
The mold-blown body (blown in dip-mold) covered with diagonal ribbing from lower right to upper left. Ribbing starts at approx. 2 cm above bottom. Rim fire rounded and slightly thickened. Conical wall tapering to slightly turned-in base. Annular pontil mark at base. A white trail spiralling horizontally around the neck just below the rim in thirteen revolutions.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire the Frankish taste in glass changed: cutting, engraving and enamelling disappeared and simpler shapes and decorative styles prevailed. Frankish (Merovingian) glass was mainly produced at the furnace. This beaker is an outstanding example of the less sophisticated techniques of the Franks. The lack of a firm base on this beaker implies, that the liquid must have been consumed before the beaker was placed rim down on the table.
Dr. Fischer Kunstauktionen 19 October 2015, No. 4.
Loudmer 1985, Collection Monsieur D., Nos. 515-516.
Whitehouse 2001, Corning Museum, No. 669.
Collection John and Carole Allaire, No. 60E.
HEXAGONAL JUG WITH CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS of Nico F. Bijnsdorp
Late 6th – early 7th century AD. Palestinian, probably vicinity of Jerusalem.
H 16.0 cm. D rim 6.3-6.9 cm. W body 7.3 cm. W base 6.7 cm. Weight 138 gr.
Barag JGS 1970: Class A1.
Newby 2008: Jerusalem Series Mold 1, Form 2.
Intact. Surface weathering and pitting. Silvery, dark blue and purple iridescence.
Body mold blown. Neck and mouth free blown. Handle applied and tooled.
Translucent dark amber-brown glass jug. Body with six rectangular panels decorated in sunken relief (intaglio), showing following motifs: (1) cross fourchée above three graduated steps; (2) two concentric lozenges with a cross in the centre and a small circular depression in each of the four corners; (3) cross fourchée on three stepped circular rings; (4) as panel 2 but instead of a cross four small circular depressions as a cross in the centre; (5) small cross standing on a tree trunk, flanked by stylized leaves with an arch above and a small circular depression in each of the two lower corners; (6) as panel 2 but with a circular depression instead of a cross in the centre. Each panel framed by recessed dots. Hollow tubular handle applied to edge of shoulder above upper right corner of panel 5, drawn up- and outwards, folded into a vertical thumb-rest and attached to the edge of the rim. Excess glass folded back along the top of the handle. Wide flaring trefoil mouth with infolded rim. Cylindrical neck gently widening towards slightly sunken shoulder with rounded, overhanging edge. Flat base with pontil mark (12 mm).
Vessels of this type are often called “pilgrim flask”. They appear to have been mass-produced in the vicinity of Jerusalem. They are made for Jews and Christians as a token for pilgrims visiting the holy sites in the Holy Land. The Jewish vessels depict the menorah whereas the Christian vessels are decorated with several types of crosses. Since the vessels for the two religions closely resemble each other in shape and style and differ only in the symbols decorating the body, it is assumed that they were produced in a single workshop.
Newby has recorded 57 jugs from the Jerusalem Series with Christian symbols, almost 80% thereof in brown glass. Mold 1 combined with form 2 is represented by 19 examples. This jug shows the same form of thumb-rest and attachment of the handle to the rim as Newby form 2. However, the handle of Newby form 2 is curved whereas the handle of this jug resembles Newby form 5. Mold 1 in combination with form 5 has not been recorded.
Ex collection of Alexander White III, California, USA, 1960’s.
Bonhams 30 September 2015, No. 96.
Newby 2008, Shlomo Moussaieff Collection, No. 18. , Sothebys 20 June 1990, Breitbart Collection, No. 111. , Whitehouse 2001, Corning Museum, No. 593 (without thumb-rest). , Stern 1995, Toledo Museum, No. 169 (without thumb-rest).
DATE-SHAPED FLASK of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire, Syrian-Palestinian coast │ 2nd half 1st century – early 2nd century AD
Size: ↑ 7,6 cm; Ø max. 3,2 cm; Ø rim 1.9 cm. │ Weight: 57 gram
Technique: Mold blown. Tooled.
Classification: Isings (1957) form 78 d. Stern (1995) type MCT VIII.
Description: Transparent yellowish brown glass, the most usual colour of date-shaped flasks. Blown into a two-part mold of two vertical sections in the form of a ripe date.
On the body relief pattern like the wrinkles in the skin of a ripe date. Rim folded outward, down and inward. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact except a minor chip to rim.
Remarks: The two-part mold of two vertical sections has been made by using an original ripe date as contra-mold.
Stern (1995) says: “A delicate glass bottle in the shape of a date filled with sweet date oil would have been a most appropriate gift on the occasion of a New Year, as well as on other occasions.”
Provenance: ± 1985 – 2011 Private Collection, England.
Published: Kunst der Antike (Gorny & Mosch, München), Auktion 202, 14-12-2011.
Reference: The Constable–Maxwell Collection of Ancient Glass (Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. London, 1979), no. 74; Antike Gläser – Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Kassel (M. Boosen, 1984), no. 13; Roman Mold-blown Glass – The Toledo Museum of Art, The first through sixth century (E. Stern, 1995), no. 95; Les Verres Antiques du Musée du Louvre II (V. Arveiller-Dulong & M-D. Nenna, 2005) no. 663; Kunstwerke der Antike (Cahn Auktionen AG Basel), Auktion 7, 03-11-2012, no. 54; Roman and Early Byzantine Glass – a Private Collection (H. van Rossum, 2014), no. HVR 051.
FOUR -HANDLED SPRINKLER of A Private Dutch Collection of Roman Glass
4th Century A.D., Syro-Palestinian
H = 7.7 cm, D = 4.5 cm
Intact and in excellent condition
Description: Optical-blown cosmetic bottle with free-blown neck and rim. Four dark blue/turquoise s-shaped handles applied to the shoulder and four splayed feet attached to the base. Pointil mark present.
P.Cuperus: ‘Characteristic for sprinklers is the horizontal disc between neck and shoulder. In the disc a whole with a narrow diaphragm. For this particular sprinkler the glassblower pierced the disc with a rod (when the glass was still soft) and turned the rod anti-clockwise. As the bottles are almost closed the scent of the liquid will not escape. The small opening only allows a small droplet to be poured out.’
Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), ‘Roman Glass from private collections’,
29 April – 28 August 2011, exp. no. 163
Museum Honig Breethuis (NL) ’Fascinating luxury of Antiquity’
12 November 2011– 30 January 2012 , exp no. 17
Charles Ede Ltd, Ancient Glass XX (2001)
Paul E.Cuperus , A Collection of Roman Glass (2008)
Romein Glas uit particulier bezit (2011)
Provenance: The Paul E. Cuperus collection no. 40
Ref. Galerie Puhze 16, no.218; Bonhams November 2001,no.420
HELLENISTIC CAST SKYPHOS of Nico F. Bijnsdorp
Late 2nd – early 1st century BC. Near East (Alexandria?) or Italy.
H= 8,6 cm. D max= 19,3 cm. D rim= 11,2 cm. D base= 7,6 cm.
Weight 320 gr.
Classification: Andrew Oliver Jr. 1967: Type A.
Condition: Intact. Tiny chips to upside handles.
Technique: Cast, ground, lathe-cut and polished.
Description: Semi-translucent colorless glass with a yellowish grey tinge. The hemispherical body on a low outsplayed ring foot. Rim cracked off and ground. The integral ring handles with flat horizontal upper and down-curved lower plates, aligned with the rim above. Vertical wheel-cut grooves on body where upper handles merge with the vessel’s rim.
Remarks: Glass skyphoi were cast in molds in one piece with their handles and feet. On the vessel’s cooling, the orifices in the handles, their further details and the feet were finished by chiseling and cutting. Subsequently the vessel was ground and polished on a lathe. Colorless glass was often chosen deliberately to imitate rock-crystal. The handles were designed to be held with the thumb, forefinger and middle finger. Most skyphoi were made from metals: gold, silver or bronze.
Published: Christies 8 June 2004, No. 11.
References: Kunina 1997, Hermitage Museum, No. 57., Saldern 1968, Boston Museum, No. 10. ,Christies 12 June 2002, No. 170.
Arveiller-Dulong 2000, Louvre Museum, No. 208., Fortuna Fine Arts 2009, After Twenty Years, No. 10.
A LARGE SHALLOW ROMAN GLASS BOWL of David Giles
Date: Roman 3rd/4th century AD
Description: Light green color with cobalt blue rim, Diameter 36cm Height 6cm with an applied ring foot of 15 cm diameter.
Conditions: Intact with patches of rainbow iridescence
Remarks: Skillfully made with a ridge very neatly folded into the base of the glass at the point where the bowl edge starts to curve upwards. The rim is folded outwards and before folding a layer of blue glass has been applied and trapped in the fold. A separately made foot has been applied. The use of two colors in this size of dish is unique as they are commonly monochrome. Have not found a parallel in such bi-color amongst the extant examples in museum collections. As for shape there are examples of similar form made at Jalame in Israel in ancient times.
A PAIR OF FACON DE VENISE WINE GLASSES of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Glass # 1, H 17,3 cm.; ø foot 7,8 cm.; ø bowl 5,3 cm.; ø stem 4 mm.; weight 46.1 grams.
Glass # 17, H 22,4 cm.; ø foot 8,3 cm.; ø bowl 6,6 cm.; ø stem 4 mm.; weight 56,7 grams.
Origin: most probably the Southern part of the Netherlands from the end 17th to early 18th century
Remarks: Our collection started with the left one, the smallest one 17,3 cm. We were, a long time ago at the PAN in Amsterdam where we saw this glass and became very interested. We really didn’t know anything about glass from this period. We asked the dealer, Frides Laméris, if this was a glass of Danish design. The simplicity of the glass – the tall slender drawn stem and the triangular bowl – was at least in our opinion typical for the Danish designs. Mr. Laméris, always the gentleman, said instead of breaking out in laughter, oh no this is a glass made at the end 17th early 18th century. From then on we got “hooked” on the plain drinking glasses. (plain meaning for us, glasses which escaped the hands of the engravers) Sometime later we acquired the taller glass from our dear friend Peter Korf de Gidts, also quite a gentleman.
Description: These glasses, which could be categorized as Façon de Venise, are called in Dutch “pijpensteeltje” this in an analogy to the old clay pipes that also had a slender “tube”, or “steeltje”, leading to the small head of the clay pipe. This type of glass was mainly produced in the Southern part of the Netherlands in the area of Namur in the 17th and 18th century. (see Toussaint 1997 pg.58 pict. top left) It remains remarkable that these glasses with their slender stems survived all those sometimes quite turbulent years.
– Ritsema van Eck, Glass in the Rijksmuseum pg. 165 nr. 241, pg. 166 nr. 242 & 243,
– Kristin Duysters, Facetten van glas, de glascollectie van het NMA pg. 78 nr. 38-39,
– Pijzel-Dommisse & Eliëns, Glinsterend glas, pg. 87 nr. 124
– Liefkes, Museum Mr. Simon van Gijn, catalogus glascollectie pg. 102/103
Glass # 1, with Frides Laméris V.O.F.;
Glass # 17, with Peter Korf de Gidts.