ROMAN FREE BLOWN GLASS FLASK OF Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Origin: Karanis/Fayum, Egypt, 2nd – 3rd AD. (see Harden) – Isings nr. 101
Dimensions: ↑ 10,2 cm.; ø corpus 6,5 cm.; ø rim 5,7 cm.; weight 75,5 gram.
Description: Roman free blown flask made from olive green glass. The corpus of the body is of a somewhat flattened bulbous form. The bottom has a kick-in base with a visible pontil mark. At the shoulder of the corpus two handles have been attached. These having the typical form for the area in which these objects were made being loops first attached to the corpus and than with multiple loops pulled out to the neck connecting to the multi-spiral thread around the top of the neck. The handles differ in form where the one on the right in this picture is more fragile in form than the other. The splayed out rim has on the underside an additional glass thread to provide extra strength to the rim. The outer edge of the rim has been folded inward.
Parallels: – Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf, Glassammlung Hentrich, Antike und Islam,
1974 nr. 181; Harden Karanis 1936, nr. 783
– Catalogue Galerie Puhze nr. 23 publicized 2009 object nr. 170
– Kelsey museum, University of Michigan, Ann Harbor, accession number 5163,
noting that their object was found in Fayum
Provenance: – ex collectie Kind, Fellbach nr. 47,
– with Galerie Puhze Freiburg,
– in owners collection since 2009.
A small pale green palm cup, cracked with no weathering. The cup is from the collection of Louis Gabriel Bellon.
H: 7.3 cm
POINTED UNGUENTARIUM of Hans van Rossum
Mid 1st century AD | Eastern Mediterranean, probably north Italy
Size↑16.3 cm | ø 4.0 cm | Weight 24 g
Technique: Free blown
Classification: Isings 1957 form 9a | Barag 1970: Type 22.1
Description: Translucent amber glass unguentarium with slender fusiform shape, narrow
cylindrical body, tapering at top and bottom, cylindrical neck, everted rim with
inward- folded lip, pointed base. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact with areas of iridescence
Remarks: This type of unguentarium is not very numerous. The earliest specimen comes from
a Locarno grave and from Pompeii several specimens are known. (Isings 1957)
Provenance: Medusa (Ancient) Art, Canada 2010
Collection: George Moro, Canada 1960’s – 2003
Reference: Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum, J.W. Hayes no. 103
Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum, S.H. Auth no. 359, inv. no. 50.1522
Verres Antiques et de l’Islam, Ancienne Collection de Monsieur D(emeulenaere), lot 141
Gläser der Antike, Sammlung Oppenländer, A. von Saldern no. 639
Ancient Glass in the Israel Museum, The Eliahu Dobkin Collection and Other Gifts,
Y. Israeli no. 105
This is a green glass Merovingian beaker on a solid flat ring foot with fine trailing around the mouth. Also see Migration Period (6th-11th C) Merovingian, Byzantine and Islamic Glass
H: 9.5 cm
Fifth to Sixth Century
STIRRING ROD of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire, Eastern Mediterranean │ 1st century – 2nd century AD
Size: ↑ 24,1 cm; Ø bar 0,5 cm; Ø ring 3,0 cm. │ Weight: 20 gram
Classification: Isings (1957) form 79.
Description: Transparent bluish-green glass. Rod with one end tooled into a flat disk, the other formed into a loop or ring handle by bending the rod round a full 360 degrees and attaching it to the top of the straight shaft of the rod. Decorated with a spirally twisted thin opaque white thread.
Condition: Intact with a tiny chip at the disk.
Remarks: The use of a stirring rod is unknown. Maybe the rod was indeed used as stirring rod for mixing water through the wine because Romans only drank wine diluted with water. The rod could also be used to get ointment out of a jar or to mix small quantities of medicines or cosmetics. Some scholars think that this specific form has a symbolical sense. The spirally twisted thread is symbolic for the thread of life, from birth till death. The ring can be regarded as symbol for the eternity after the death.
Provenance: 2008 Kunsthandel Mieke Zilverberg, Amsterdam.
Sixties – 1984 Private collection Mr. F. (1909 – 1984), Surrey (England).
Published: Romeins glas uit particulier bezit (J. van der Groen & H. van Rossum, 2011).
Exhibited: Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), “Romeins Glas, geleend uit particulier bezit”,
29 April – 28 August 2011, exp. no. 258
Reference: Gläser der Antike – Sammlung Erwin Oppenländer (A. von Saldern, 1974), no. 619; Antike Gläser – Ausstellung im Antikenmuseum Berlin (G. Platz-Horster, 1975), no. 117; Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum from the Eugene Schaefer Collection of Antiquities (S. Auth, 1976), no. 521; The Constable–Maxwell Collection of Ancient Glass – The Property of Mr and Mrs Andrew Constable-Maxwell (Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. London, 1979), no. 200 and no. 201; Ancient Glass of Asia Minor – The Yüksel Erimtan Collection (C. Lightfoot & M. Arslan, 1992), no. 147; Ancient Glass in the Hermitage collection (N. Kunina, 1997), no. 81, no. 82 and no. 83.
NINETEEN FRAGMENTS OF EGYPTIAN FLORAL GLASS INLAYS OR PLAQUES of David Giles
Origin and Date:These nineteen fragments of Egyptian Floral glass inlays or plaques are from the Hellenistic or early Roman period 2nd century BC/1st century AD.
Size: Largest 7cm long
Manufacture method: Mosaic technique with bundles of coloured canes fused together to form floral images of plants and flowers and then embedded in a matrix of blue grey glass. After polishing each plaque is about 5mm thickness.
Remarks: Whole plaques would have been rectangle in shape and about 12 to 15cm in height with a width of 6 to 7cm. No absolutely complete plaque as ever been found but some nearly complete. As none have been found in situ the exact purpose of them is unknown but it can be assumed that they are inlays for furniture. All archaeological examples have been found in sites in Egypt with the exception of one found in the Galilee in Israel.
Provenance: Formerly in the Gustav Moustaki Collection, Alexandria, Egypt, 19th century. Exported legally from Egypt in 1949
Reference: STERN/NOLTE Early Ancient Glass 1994 – pages 404/407, GROSE Early Ancient Glass Toledo 1989 – 355/356, GOLDSTEIN Ancient Glass Miho 2001 – item 118 pages 86/87/202, GOLDSTEIN Pre-Roman& Early Roman Glass Corning 1979 – pages 254/255/256/257, BIANCHI/NOLTE Ancient Glass Borowski 2002 – pages 81/82
Parallels: One of the larger surviving fragments is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and another in the British Museum
UNGUENTARIUM of Hans van Rossum
Date: 4th – 5th century AD |Origin: Eastern Mediterranean
Size↑15.7 cm | ø 3.8 cm (body) | Weight 40 g
Technique: Free blown, handle and coils applied
Description: Transparent bluish-green glass, small bi-conical drop-shaped body with long tubular neck, constriction at the junction with the body. Encircling with three applied coils. Base solid and indented, broken off roughly from pontil, on the body a zigzag spiral trail in deep turquoise glass and four revolutions of a fine spiral trail. Circular handle of thick coil attached to both sides of the rim.
Remarks: It is unknown what this unguentarium was used for. It is suggested that unguentaria like this one were used by the Roman senators to vote in the Senate. Another assumption is that they were used to measure, how much water had been added to the wine by judging the resistance to it being sunk into the wine, measuring the viscosity. The rings may have served as measuring points. And there is the striking resemblance between the calamistrum and this unguentarium. The most involved operation during Roman times was the curling of the hair, for which the calamistrum was used. This calamistrum was a metal tool, which female slaves heated in a metal sheath buried in hot ash, and around which the ornatrix skillfully twisted the hair. The most striking features with this metal example are the circular handle, the long neck and the rings as decoration of the neck and the oval body. It is not obvious that the glass example was used to curl the hair but perhaps this unguentarium had also a function within the mode of the hair during ancient times or this glass variant of the metal tool was given as a gift for the deceased woman, to serve as a nice reminder to the profession she exercised. Who knows!! Below is a drawing of a metal calamistrum and a Roman woman using it to curl her hair.
Provenance: Jerusalem art market, 2001
Published: Antiek Glas, de Kunst van het Vuur, R. van Beek no. 59
Exhibited: Museum Simon van Gijn Dordrecht (NL) February 2004, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam (NL), de Kunst van het Vuur, no. 59 17 May – 16 September 2001
Reference: Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum, J.W. Hayes no. 413, Ancient Glass in the Israel Museum, The Eliahu Dobkin Collection and Other Gifts, Y. Israeli no. 3 Glass from the Roman Empire, P.E. Cuperus no. PEC 051
THIN-WALLED ARYBALLOS of Hans van Rossum
1st century AD | Eastern Mediterranean
Size↑7.2 cm | ø 5.4 cm | Weight 32 g
Technique: Free-blown, handles applied
Classification: Barag 1970, Type 9.1
Description: Transparent manganese glass. The thin-walled aryballos with slightly squat globular
body, cylindrical neck and flaring folded rim. Rim folded inward. Flat base, slightly
concave at center, no pontil mark. Two bifurcated handles of marbled blue glass
applied on the shoulder, drawn up, folded down and up against upper neck and rim.
Condition: Intact, rainbow-colored and fine silvery iridescence; perfect condition
Remarks: Most thin-walled aryballoi are bichrome or polychrome, the body is one-color and the handles and/or rim are of a contrasting color. Bifurcated handles are specific characteristics for early blown aryballoi.
Provenance:Jerusalem art market; Sasson Ancient Art Ltd. 2011
Sasson private collection, Israel
Published: Archaeological Center Tel Aviv, auction 49, 15 December 2010 lot 117
Reference: Ancient Glass in the Israel Museum, The Eliahu Dobkin Collection and Other Gifts,
Y. Israeli no. 333
Ancient Glass in the Hermitage Collection, N. Kunina cat. no. 343
Kunst der Antike, Galerie Günter Puhze, Katalog 23 no. 154
Roman, Byzantine and Early Medieval Glass, Ernesto Wolf Collection, E. M. Stern, no. 14 (different rim)
PEAR-SHAPED JUG of Hans van Rossum
Date:4th century AD | Origin:Eastern Mediterranean Size:↑13.6 cm | ø 6.6 cm | Weight: 126 g
Technique: Free blown, handle and foot applied
Description: Transparent amber colored glass, low-bellied and pear-shaped body, tapering to a narrow cylindrical neck, wide flattened mouth and rim folded inward. The base pushed in and tooled to form a hollow tubular base ring, rest of pontil. Handle of olive green glass, applied on the lower part of body, drawn up, making a construction and attached to edge of rim at right angle.
Condition: Intact, perfect condition
Remarks: In Roman times the common name for this type of jug was lagoena. The name was used for a jug made of pottery, silver,bronze or glass with the following and specific
Characteristics: a narrow neck, a bellied body and one or two handles. (Hilgers 1969) It is fascinating to see how the glass blower worked with too much glass for the handle, more than he needed but he used it all.
Provenance: Tel Aviv art market, 2005
Reference: Archaeological Center Tel Aviv, auction 46, 20 January 2010 lot 54, Fire and Sand, Ancient Glass in the Princeton University Art Museum, A. Antonaras no. 245
SPRINKLER WITH FINS of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire, Syrian-Palestinian area │ 3th – 4th century AD
Size: ↑ 9,2 cm; Ø max. (excl. fins) 6,5 cm; Ø rim 4,6 cm. │ Weight: 75 gram
Technique: Free blown. Tooled.
Description: Transparent bluish-green glass with a few small air bubbles. Body and neck separately blown and then pressed together. Short cylindrical neck with a small oval opening in the base. Funnel shaped mouth with a glass-thread at the underside. Rim folded outward, upward and inward. Bulbous body with two rows of four fins pulled out of the glass. Base flat, lightly pushed in upward. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact with some weathering.
Remarks: A typical mark of sprinklers is the very small opening at the base of the neck that enables perfume to be poured out drop by drop. Sprinklers were used for sprinkling oneself as refreshment against the heat. In the Roman time sprinklers were named gutturnia (singular: gutturnium).
Provenance: 2004 Galerie Rhéa, Zürich (Switzerland). Before 2004 in a private collection, Bern (Switzerland).
Published: Romeins glas uit particulier bezit (J. van der Groen & H. van Rossum, 2011).
Exhibited: Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), “Romeins Glas, geleend uit particulier bezit”, 29 April – 28 August 2011, exp. no. 127.
Reference: Gläser der Antike – Sammlung Erwin Oppenländer (A. von Saldern, 1974), no. 692; Roman and Pre-Roman Glass in the Royal Ontario Museum (J. Hayes, 1975), no. 157; Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum from the Eugene Schaefer Collection of Antiquities (S. Auth, 1976), no. 147; Römische Kleinkunst – Sammlung Karl Löffler (P. La Baume en J. Salomonson, 1976). no. 178; Glas der Antike – Kestner-Museum Hannover (U. Liepmann, 1982). no. 97.