Various English Wine Glasses
From the Glass Collection of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
From the Allaire Collection of English Glass
The English Baluster Wine Glass
Simply the English Baluster is a wine glass with a bowl of various shape and size on inverted baluster stem and base knop, often with a folded foot. The Baluster wine is heavy looking with the bowl about one third of its total size. It is a large group of the beautiful well-designed glasses. The motif was adopted from Renaissance architecture, and its use began on glasses from Venice made in the early 17th C. They have been made in England from 1676 to modern times. Like the Roemer the Baluster is a classic. These glasses with baluster stems are quite varied in number, shape and arrangements of knops, as well as different forms of bowls. The size ranges, from large goblets to small wines. They are sometimes made from soda glass but mostly of leaded glass. There are two classes, heavy (first-period baluster) and light (Newcastle glasses) which are smaller in scale with a series of small knops, some flattened. Baluster where also made in the Netherlands and France.
Additional examples from Museums
The Buckingham’s Glasshouses 16th -17th C.
The second duke of Buckingham in 1660 obtained patents from Charles II and for fourteen years dominated the English glass industry. He the same year obtain a glasshouse at Greenwich, employing Venetian workers along with John De La Cam to make glasses in the Venetian style. Also, in 1663 he bought another glasshouse in Vauxhall to make sheet glass and mirrors. Before this luxury glass was imported to England from Venice as early as 1399. This was due, in no small part, to the skill of Venetian glassmakers, who held a monopoly on the luxury glass industry at that time. The history of English glass in the 16th and 17th centuries centers on the pursuit of a cristallo to replace imported Venetian wares. Buckingham’s glasshouses were among the early English glassmaking ventures that sought to replicate and sell cristallo in England.
Although the English were eventually able to manufacture glass in the Venetian style, their final products, made of soda- lime glass, remained as fragile as their Venetian counterparts. With the development of lead crystal by the English glassmaker George Ravenscroft (1632–1683) in the 1670s, however, the glasshouses of Buckingham and others faced increasing competition. The material and the cooling properties of Ravenscroft’s glass dictated the final forms of objects. Simple but strong shapes emerged in English glass, and the reflection of the Venetian style began to fade. This departure from fragile façon de Venise glass was a direct result of the improved strength and durability of the newly developed lead crystal. The above was taken in part from an article written by Alexandra Ruggiero, Curatorial Assistant at The Corning Museum of Glass.
Additional Example of glasses Buckingham’s Glasshouses in the Corning Museum of Glass
The Venetian Style Glass in England in the 16th Century
When the Venetian glass making secrets reached the Netherlands and France in the 16th C, it was not long before they were brought to England. In 1587 Jean Carre, an experienced glass-maker, settled in the Weald of Kent. He imported nine Venetian glass workers, of which the most significant was Jacomo Verzelini. When Carre died (1572) Verzelini took over the business and eventually acquired a cristallo glass house in London. By December (1574) he obtained a 21-year monopoly to make Façon de Venise glasses in England. Some of these glasses have survive but most are fragmentary. The following wine glasses are from Museum collections.
This goblet is in the Corning Museum of Glass #63.2.8. This link is to a clip about the: Verzelini goblet
H: 20.9 cm, Diam (max): 10.4 cm
England, probably London
This second goblet is also in the Corning Museum of Glass #50.2.1
H: 20.5 cm; Rim Diam: 10.5 cm
England, probably London, possibly France
This goblet with opaque white trails and engraved is in the British Museum
English Glass Plate 14, D: 1586 , Giacomo Verzelinis Glasshouse
This goblet with the coat of arms of Queen Elizabeth I is in the Victoria & Albert Museum
This goblet made with dark soda glass is in the Fitzwilliam Museum #171
Colorless transparent English made of potash-lime glass or leaded glass. The glass forms cover here are Ale, Jelly or Syllabub, and Tankard. These types of glasses came in many different sizes and decorations and were very plentiful mainly in the 18th C. Click on the title which is a live link above the picture for additional information.
Monday: Green English Wine
This English wine made of green glass were beautifully made and decorated. Green wine glasses like this were used for hock wine which is white Rhine wine. They were very popular for short period from about 1750-1760. Below are examples of some of the types Green English Wine Glasses. Click on the title which is a live link above the picture for additional information.
Stem Formations on Venetian and Façon de Venise Wineglasses
Venice became the dominant glass manufacturing center from the 15th to the end of the 16th century. Glass objects in the Venetian style are of the finest quality light weight glass with attributes like delicacy, elaborateness, colorfulness (enamel decoration) created by highly skilled glassworkers. Byzantine craftsmen and glassworkers played an important role in the development of Venetian glass when they migrated from Constantinople to Venice in 1204 and again in 1453. Towards the end of the 13th century, the center of the Venetian glass industry was moved to Murano. By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques. Murano artisans used specialized tools in the making of their glass. Some of these tools include borselle (tongs or jacks used to form the hot glass), soffietta (known as a puffer and used to inflate a vessel after it has been transferred to the punty), pontello or punty (an iron rod to which the craftsman attaches the glass after blowing to add final touches), scagno (the glass-master’s work bench) and tagianti (large glass-cutting clippers). Near the end of the 16th century Venice started to lose control over the luxury glass market. By the 17th century Façon de Venise (in the style of Venetian glass) was adopted in many countries of Europe and England. It should be noted that at approximately the same time period as the Venetians, highly skilled glassworkers were also busy in Altare. It is quite difficult to make a distinction between glass objects made in Venice or Altare. It is sometimes stated that the spreading of the art of making sophisticated glass over Europe mainly came from trained glassworkers from Altare as there was a ban on the free movement of glassworkers from Venice. What we nowadays call Façon de Venise glass made in Spain, France, and the Netherlands can be seen as the combined contributions of glassworkers from Altare and Venice. The renaissance of glassmaking in Britain can also be attributed to glassworkers from Italy. It remains quite difficult and tricky declaring glasses of Venetian/Altarian origin or Façon de Venise. For some it is quite clear and others can fall either way. Verre de Fougère is a sub-type of Façon de Venise glass from France and refers to glass made using fern-ash as a flux. The ash can give a specific “smoky” ,brownish, ginger or sandy coloring to the glass.
Stemware: is drinkware that stands on stems above a base. It is usually made from glass, but may be made from ceramics or metals. The stem allows the drinker to hold the glass without affecting the temperature of the drink.
Purpose: What this post will try to do is to describe stem formations on Venetian and Façon de Venise glasses using photographs of these vessels. This is an analogy of L.M. Bickerton’s book, “Eighteenth Century English Drinking Glasses an Illustrated Guide” which names the elements of stem forms.
Co-Author Theo Zandbergen
Below are pictures of Venetian and Façon de Venise wineglasses, clicking on a picture will open it to a larger picture with a short description of the glass and it’s stem. To come back to this page, click on the X in upper right hand corner. The series of numbers below correspond to the number on the bottom of each small picture. Clicking (link) on one of these numbers will bring you to another page with more in-depth information on that glass. Using your back arrow will bring you back to this page.
Ancient Oil Lamps
Oil lamps were used by the ancient people of the Middle East, Europe, and Northern Africa to light their homes at night. They were fueled by fish oil, animal oil and fat but mainly by vegetable (olive) oil. A woven fibrous wick was placed in the hole at the tip of the lamp to burn the oil. This group of people includes the Greeks, Romans, Jews, Early Christians, Egyptians, Muslims, Syrians, North Africans, Celts, Gauls, Britains, and even some early Crusaders. The time period for oil lamps is approximately from 300 BC through 900 AD. Generally they are thought of as Roman or early Islamic oil lamps.
The examples here are earthenware ceramic or clay lamps. Oil lamps were also made in various metals and in glass. The traditional Roman technique for making clay lamps was to press the raw clay into gypsum molds. The two halves of the lamp were put together and the two holes were made. The green ware was then trimmed by hand using small metal tools and then fired in an oven. More expensive oil lamps had glazes applied in the firing step.
Allaire Collection of Oil Lamps
David Giles Collection of Roman Oil Lamps
MELTED PERFUME BOTTLE of Hans van Rossum
End 1st – 2nd century AD | Northern Italy or Dalmatia (Today Croatia)
Size↑9.5 cm | ø 3.3 cm | Weight 23 g
Technique: Free blown
Classification: Isings 1957 form 28
Description: Blue-green glass, long cylindrical neck, rounded rim. No pontil mark.
Condition: Melted, but intact
Remarks: Melted glasses are common in antiquity. (Necropolis Relja area, Zadar-Croatia with numerous examples) Probably these glasses, filled with a fragrant liquid, were used as part of a ceremony around the cremation, to dissipate the smell of the burning body. After using the perfume the glass was thrown into the fire. The practice of sprinkling the body of the dead with aromatic spices can be understood against the background of the country’s warm climate. The spices were intended to slow down the process of decomposition and to repel files and insects. However, they were intended not only for the deceased, as part of the burial rites, but also for the place of burial itself. There is no doubt that many of the bottles that have been found were brought by the mourners, in order to mitigate the bad smell and to freshen the air during and after the burial ceremony. This was certain a necessary procedure in family tombs, which were visited at set times. The numerous bottles found in the tombs complement the written sources. It is interesting to note that many of the bottles found are of poor quality and careless manufactured, possibly because they were made especially for funerary use.
Provenance: Cameleoncoins, USA 2012
Reference: Vetri Antichi del Museo Archeologico di Udine, M. Buora nos. 436 – 440 for other melted perfume bottles, Vetri antichi del Museo Vetrario di Murano, G.L. Ravagnan no. 172
ROMAN DRINKING GLASS FROM THE RHINELAND
2nd. half 1st. to 3.rd century A.D. Isings form 36 H: 8.05 cm W: 7.21 D-Rim: 7.89 cm D-Foot: 3.3 cm.
Technique: Free blown; rounded rim, standing ring applied.
Description: Transparant clear glass with a tinge of blue; mouth slightly splaying; rim rounded; body narrowing at one quarter from the rim, widening towards the base; footring pinched in the centre of the concave bottom, visible from inside the glass.
Condition: Complete, intact, unbroken,; slightly iridescent on the underside, weathered, with adhering sand.
Remarks: A variation to the type called Carchesium, according to Sennequier.
Provenance: From a private collection Krefeld, Germany, hence in a private collection in the Netherlands.
Reference: Morin-Jean,1911, form: 98. Isings,1957, form 36b, p.50. Fremersdorf, Die Farblose Glaeser, p. 18, nr 46. Sennequier,1986, p. 48-49, nr. 14. Loeschcke: Slg. Niessen 52, nr: 871,Taf. 46.