Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

ROMAN CYLINDRICAL GLASS BOTTLE

Posted in 2. Ancient Glass, CATEGORIES OF GLASS TYPES ON THIS SITE, Roman Glass by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 31, 2018

 

Date: Third Century A.D. Size: H: 9.8 cm, Rim: 6.5 cm D,

Description: This graceful bottle is completely covered with a shimmering iridescence.  Cylindrical bottles of this period are characterized by two types of mouth: one folded in and flattened and the other more common funnel mouth with folded rim as in this example. Both types of bottles are consistently made of pale green.  This kind of iridescence is rare. Found in Turkey.

Condition: intact

Reference: Cf. Auth 1976, #443, APC # I-3

Allaire Collection number: 04R

ROMAN GLASS JUG WITH HANDLE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 30, 2018

ROMAN GLASS JUG WITH HANDLE of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen

Roman Jug with Handle

Roman Jug with Handle

Small jug, 2nd -3rd cent. A.D.
Picture by Tom Haartsen

A small Roman jug made from greenish glass. The handle has been attached to the shoulder of the flattened globular body with a kind of horseshoe shaped piece of glass. From there pulled up with a small hollow shaped band, approx. 1 cm wide, to the rim of the jug and attached with a elegant curl, a kind of thumb rest. The rim has been turned inward. The base is almost flat with a small indentation. The dimensions give this jug an elegant distinction.

Dimensions:, H: 7 cm.; largest ø 8,5 cm., ø rim 6 cm.; weight 80,7 gram.

Origin: Most probably Western Empire and from the Köln region.

Parallels:
Until now no parallels found.

Provenance:
– Collection Hammelsbeck, Köln, Marienburg 1950 – 1970,
– Numisart München

Exhibited:
– Roman Glass from private collections, Thermenmuseum Heerlen 2011.

Modern and Contemporary Glass from the Allaire Collection

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 28, 2018

Our interest in glass started with Modern and Contemporary glass in 1983.  We soon discovered ancient Roman glass and the collection went in a different direction.  We started this site in 2009 to share the beauty of glass with those interested.

 

HELLENISTIC CAST GLASS KANTHAROS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 25, 2018

HELLENISTIC CAST GLASS KANTHAROS of David Giles

Hellenistic cast glass Kantharos

Hellenistic cast glass Kantharos

Date: 3rd/2nd century BC, From Italy or Black Sea area

Size: 15cm max width including handles, 8 cm high

Technique: Colorless glass Kantharos cast and cut

Condition: Broken and repaired.

Remarks: These double handed cast and cut drinking vessels of the Hellenistic period came in two shapes. The Kantharos or Cantharos is a drinking cup or bowl with two handles on a pedestal foot and the Skyphos has no pedestal foot. The latter shape in glass is more common.

Reference: British Museum Masterpieces of Glass 1968, illustration # 37 page 32. KUNINA Ancient Glass Hermitage, St Petersburg 1997. Illustration # 37 page 75. also see Roman Glass at the Louvre

Provenance: German collection of late 1960’s.

CAST AND CUT BOWLS FROM 500BC-400BC

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 25, 2018

CAST AND CUT BOWLS FROM 500BC-400BC

Dating: The production of these glass bowls, colorless or pale green to olive green are attributed to the period of the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia (559-330 BC).

Description: The forms of the glass bowls are copied from the Achaemenid silver and bronze shapes. They feature either embossed fluting, rosettes of pointed leaves or lobed designs on both deep and shallow bowls with flaring rims.  The shallower bowls are called phiales.

Technique: The technique of manufacture was possibly the lost-wax casting method using the finest quality glass available. Many of these bowls show signs of being cut on the exterior and also polished on both surfaces.

The following bowl drawings are from, Early Ancient Glass, Toledo Museum of Art, 1989, David Grose

Achaemenid Bowls

Metal Prototypes

 

Achaemenid Glass Bowls

 

RHODIAN CAST MONOCHROME BOWL of  Nico F. Bijnsdorp

(This bowl fits better into the Achaemenid group because it is deeper (3.7 cm) then the shallow phialai bowls.)

Rhodian cast monochrome bowl

Rhodian cast monochrome bowl

HELLENISTIC CAST, SLUMPED, CUT GLASS BOWL of David Giles

Hellenistic cast, slumped, cut bowl top

Hellenistic cast, slumped, cut bowl bottom

Bonhams Fine Art Auctioneers

Getty Villa, side view –

Getty Villa, bottom view

 

The State Hermitage Museum

 

Phiale Bowls: Metal Prototypes

Phiale Glass Bowls

Toledo Museum of Art

 

Corning Museum of Glass

 

 

PRISMATIC (“MERCURY”) ROMAN GLASS BOTTLE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 22, 2018

Prismatic (‘Mercury’) bottle of  The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

 

Date:  2nd – 3rd century A.D. Size: H = 14.8 cm. D =  3.6 cm

Classification:  Isings (1957), form 84; Morin-Jean (1913), form 19

Provenance:  Private collection Ventura (USA)

Description:  Transparent pale green almost square bottle, blown in a mold with four vertical sections. With slightly tapering body toward the bottom. The base mark has in relief four swirls Freeblown cylindrical tall neck with outsplayed rim.

Condition: intact

Remarks:  Some bottles of this type have a picture of Mercury on the bottom, the Roman God for trade and travelers. The name can probably be traced back to the words merx or mercator, which in Latin stands for merchant or merchant. In addition to an image of Mercury, a large number of variants are known, such as combinations with simple geometrical motifs or floral such as palm branches (also on the wall) and letters, for example, G.H.F.I. or F.I.R.M. The latter could be an abbreviation of the workshop where such a bottle was produced (Latin: Firmii or Firmiorum).

This example does not have an attribute of Mercury, but (as mentioned above) imposes large ¼ corner circles or garlands, which creates a kind of star. Special is that an almost identical bottom brand also occurs on a regular square bottle in the Windmill Collection with short neck (also without handle)

Bottles with the generic name ‘Mercury’ are mainly manufactured in the Rhineland, Gaul, Istria, Dalmatia and Northern Italy. Most are found in the vicinity of Cologne, in Italy, Croatia, Belgium and also in the Netherlands. According to Stern (1977), they probably served as perfume bottles. This would also explain the narrow opening (and long neck) They do not exclude the possibility that they were filled with water from a holy spring in Roman times or were meant for the storage of herbs. Facchini (1998), on the other hand, is of the opinion that several bottles found in Northern Italy containing medicinal residues are considered to be specifically intended for the sale of various medicines.

Due to the rectangular shape, they are ideally suited to be transported in larger numbers at the same time. She further notes that the usual height for this is between 13 and 16 cm and the bottom dimension between 2.5 and 3.5 cm. However, from elsewhere in the western Roman Empire, considerably higher Mercury bottles are known, up to 22.5 cm (Smith collection, Whitehouse 2001) and 26.5 cm (Römisch-Germanisches Museum Cologne, Doppelfeld 1966). Furthermore, larger, hexagonal, specimens have also been found in Dalmatia.

Trade is of all times: thick-walled bottles may have had a content that was precious or dangerous like eye water, but, Morin Jean (1913) notes, it is also not excluded that it was a trick to make the buyer think that there is more in the bottle than was actually the case. After all, man wants to be deceived, ‘homo vult decipi’, so the Romans already knew in ancient times!

Reference:  Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Aquileia (Madruzzato/Mercate 2004/2005, inv. nr. AQ 2005/255); Corning Museum (Whitehouse 2001 vol. II, nrs. 567/585 (Mercury)  ; Musées Départementeaux de Seine-Maritime (Sennequier 1985, nr. 167, no trademark)

THE IRIDESCENT ANCIENT ROMAN GLASS AT THE LEGION OF HONOR MUSEUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 19, 2018

The pictures below are only part of the wonderful iridescent ancient Roman glass found in this museum.

 

This is a link to our post of THE LEGION OF HONOR MUSEUM and another to the museum web site:  https://legionofhonor.famsf.org/

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Additional post on this site about iridescence:

 COLLECTORS’ EXAMPLES ROMAN GLASS ARYBALLOI

COLLECTORS’ EXAMPLES ROMAN GLASS ARYBALLOI

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 16, 2018

VENETIAN & FAÇON de VENISE VENICE GLASSES OF THE RENAISSANCE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 14, 2018

VENETIAN & FAÇON de VENISE VENICE GLASS

The Renaissance Period was the cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome. … Renaissance means “rebirth” or “reawakening.”  The renaissance of glassmaking in Europe mainly took place Venice.

The Roman glassmaking industry in Europe slowly die out from the fourth century and became glass of the Migration Period and Middle Ages (6th-14th C).  Venice became the dominant glass manufacturing center from the 15th to the end of the 16th century. Glass objects in the Venetian style are of the finest quality light weight glass with attributes like delicacy, elaborateness, colorfulness (enamel decoration) created by highly skilled glassworkers. Byzantine craftsmen and glassworkers played an important role in the development of Venetian glass when they migrated from Constantinople to Venice in 1204 and again in 1453. Towards the end of the 13th century, the center of the Venetian glass industry was moved to Murano. By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques. Murano artisans used specialized tools in the making of their glass. Some of these tools include borselle (tongs or jacks used to form the hot glass), soffietta (known as a puffer and used to inflate a vessel after it has been transferred to the punty), pontello or punty (an iron rod to which the craftsman attaches the glass after blowing to add final touches), scagno (the glass-master’s work bench) and tagianti (large glass-cutting clippers). Near the end of the 16th century Venice started to lose control over the luxury glass market. By the 17th century Façon de Venise (in the style of Venetian glass) was adopted in many countries of Europe and England. It should be noted that at approximately the same time period as the Venetians, highly skilled glassworkers were also busy in Altare. It is quite difficult to make a distinction between glass objects made in Venice or Altare. It is sometimes stated that the spreading of the art of making sophisticated glass over Europe mainly came from trained glassworkers from Altare as there was a ban on the free movement of glassworkers from Venice. What we nowadays call Façon de Venise glass made in Spain, France, and the Netherlands can be seen as the combined contributions of glassworkers from Altare and Venice. The renaissance of glassmaking in Britain can also be attributed to glassworkers from Italy. It remains quite difficult and tricky declaring glasses of Venetian/Altarian origin or Façon de Venise. For some it is quite clear and others can fall either way. Verre de Fougère is a sub-type of Façon de Venise glass from France and refers to glass made using fern-ash as a flux. The ash can give a specific “smoky”, brownish, ginger or sandy coloring to the glass. Co-Author Theo Zandbergen

For additional information see these links below posted on this site.

GLASS OF THE MIDDLE AGES,GLASS OF THE BYZANTINE PERIOD & EARLY MIDDLE AGES,MIGRATION PERIOD (6TH-9TH C) MEROVINGIAN,-BYZANTINE AND ISLAMIC GLASS,Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen SEE SECOND PART OF THIS PAGE,MEDIEVAL GLASS GALLERY 307 AT THE MET,THE BRITISH MUSEUM: POST ROMAN AND MEROVINGIAN GLASS 5TH – 7TH C,– FRENCH, VENETIAN AND FACON DE VENISE GLASS AT THE LOUVRE,NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE RENAISSANCE IN FRANCE,Naming: Stem Formations From A to Z on Venetian and Façon de Venise Wine Glasses,VENETIAN & FACON de VENISE GLASS in Allaire Collection

The following are examples of  Venetian & Façon de Venise glass.

COLLECTORS’ EXAMPLES OF HIGHLY IRIDESCENT ANCIENT GLASS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 10, 2018

COLLECTORS’ EXAMPLES OF HIGHLY IRIDESCENT ANCIENT GLASS

The iridescence on ancient glass was unintentional unlike what is found on modern Tiffany, Loetz, and Steuben glass. Caused by weathering on the surface, the iridescence, and the interplay of lustrous, changing colors, is due to the refraction of light by thin layers of weathered glass. How much a glass object weathers depends mainly on burial conditions and to a lesser extent the chemistry of it. These conditions are humidity, heat and type of soil the glass was buried in. The chemistry of ancient glass though basically the same as our soda glass differed in the purity of raw materials and compositional ratio.  There were also differences in flux alkali used such as natron (sodium carbonate) or potash (potassium carbonate). Generally glass made in the Western Provinces with potash has less iridescence than glass from the Eastern Mediterranean areas using natron. At the same time burial conditions also were different. Natural iridescence is sometimes found on modern glass bottles from digs in the back yards of old houses or pulled out of river beds. The word iridescence comes from Iris, the Greek Goddess of rainbows and refers to rainbow-like colors seen on the glass which changes in different lighting.  It is simply caused by alkali (soluble salt) being leached from the glass by slightly acidic water and then forming fine layers that eventually separate slightly or flake off causing a prism effect on light bouncing off and passing through the surface which reflects light differently, resulting in an iridescent appearance. Modern iridescence sometimes called iris glass is made by adding metallic compounds to the glass or by spraying the surface with stannous chloride or lead chloride and reheating it in a reducing atmosphere.

Hans van Rossum

AMBER RIBBED BOWL (zarte Rippenschale)

(CREATION OF MOTHER NATURE)

MULTI-HANDLED JAR

Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen

TWO ROMAN MINIATURE AMPHORAE

 

Joop van der Groen

CYLINDRICAL ROMAN BOTTLE

The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

ROMAN COBALT BLUE RIBBED “MELON” GLASS BOWL

Nico F. Bijnsdorp

 

PATTERN-BLOWN DROPPER FLASK

Nico F. Bijnsdorp collection

David Giles

PRUNTED MEDIEVAL GLASS BEAKER

A LARGE SHALLOW ROMAN GLASS BOWL

 

The Augustinus Collection of Ancient Glass

SQUARE JAR WITH FLARING RIM AND FOUR INDENTED SIDES

The Allaire Collection of Roman Glass

 

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