Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

SMALL PRISMATIC ROMAN GLASS BOTTLES WITHOUT HANDLE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 29, 2019

Two Prismatic Bottle From The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

Date: 2nd Century AD Sizes: a. H = 7.8 cm     D = 3.0 – 3.2 cm b. H =  10.3 cm  D = 4.9 cm

Provenance:      Rhineland (Germany)

Description:     Green prismatic mold blown bottles with sunken shoulders,  the smaller one with slightly inwardly formed walls. Free blown cylindrical neck. No handles. Marks are provided on the underside, respectively in a cross and star shape.

Condition:         Both intact with irisation

Exhibited:        2011 Thermen Museum,  Heerlen (Nl), prismatic bottle b.

Remarks:           The majority of prismatic glass bottles have one applied handle. Without they are slightly less common. The (cross) basemark sub. a is described in Foy/Nenna 2006 vol.1 (F-Car 001/003) as being found under bottles from a Roman Villa in Montmaurin (S.W. Gaul)

ROMAN GLASS GUTTUS FROM COLOGNE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 26, 2019

ROMAN GLASS GUTTUS FROM COLOGNE

of

The Augustinus Collection of Ancient Glass


 Shape: AcoaG no: 56.   Isings form 8/27 | Morin-Jean type 19,

Date:  2nd/3rd. century A.D.

Size: ↑ 14.15 cm, | Ø Mouth out : 2.05 cm / in: 0.51 cm | Weight: 24 g  |

Technique: Blown to a square body with a long tubular neck by means of a mold; with a broad rim folded out, down and in, flattened on top surface, a small sprinkler hole created; sloping shoulders to the body; corners rounded; body indented equally on four sides to ensure a certain grip.

Description: Toilet bottle or Unguentarium with square indented body at one-half of total length (body: 7.2 cms, neck: 6.95 cms long); four vertical indentations of equal lenght and depth; base plain, with small concavity at center, no pontil mark visible. The bottle can stand on its own, while the neck is slightly excentrical in position. The opening of the mouth is restricted to a diameter of 0.51 cms, creating the possibility to use it, as with all of the sprinkler-flasks, to let precious liquid drip out, drop by drop, and for that reason it is called: Guttus | ’Tear-drop bottle’ in a non-technical context. (1)

Provenance & Condition: This Roman Glass Unguentarium was found, – following a written detail in the AcoaG-archive -, in Cologne in a grave situated near the church of Saint Severin, Sankt Severinskirche, along the road leading south out of the CCAA-Castellum, in two parts; body and neck were found separately, but closely lying together, with no parts missing; in 2015 an acurate assemblage was made by Restaura, Heerlen | Maastricht, NL. (2)

With silvery and golden iridescence; weathered allover, making the once clear colorless glass impossible to see through. The flask shows a similarity to the square-sided ‘Mercury flasks’, (Isings form 84) a taller shape with a trademark on the base that from the first century on did persist into the fourth century A.D. (3),

A remark is given by C. Isings that the Cologne-finds are not too trustworthy in their registration (read the text with form 27), but Fremersdorf states that the area near St. Severin’s Church was searched between 1923-1943, and once more in 1955, during a rather long period of time, so to speak, but no clue is given or could be found when the bottle came to the Augustinus collection. Acquired in Cologne before 1955; from a private dutch collection, first publication.

Footnotes:

1). Closer information on the meaning of the tear-drop bottles, in connection to the burial-ceremony and the mourning ritual, can be found with: Vessels of Tears | the history of Emotions an exhibition organised in Aarhus, Denmark in 2017.

 2). Saint Severin’s Church | Sankt Severins-Kirche, see the reconstruction design of phase one | Rekonstruction von Bau I, (Greven Verlag Koeln, 1966) below, from ca 320 A.D. after the emperor Constantine the Great had given freedom to the Christian Religion in 312.

3). Mercury-flasks, see : ‘A Container of Grief? The Myth of the Tear bottle’ by: Ethnografica-blog, september 2017, the exhibition: ‘The Presence of Absence’. |

Philip Houben, Roemisches Antiquarium, Xanten 1853.

Bibliography:

  1. Isings, form 8/27, 1957; Fremersdorf 1957, p 27 pl 24, no N253; Goethert-Polaschek 1977, form 76a ; Stern 1984, p 136, fig 5 ; De Tomaso 1990, type 64; Whitehouse 1997: CMG Volume 1, 237.

AcoaG 56.2)  Reconstruction drawing of Saint Severins Church , phase 1 ca 320 AD Fremersdorf cs. 1966.

 

(AcoaG 56.3) Philip Houben, Roemisches Antiquarium , a lithografic illustration from 1853. Tableau XXXIX.

 

SPANISH CANTIR FROM CATALONIA

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 24, 2019

Spanish Glass Cantir from Catalonia

The picture above and picture below are of the same cantir.  What these pictures show is the wonderful optical property of glass.

 

This light green glass cantir is from Catalonia, Spain.  A cantir is a type of closed jug or cantaro with a ring handle and two spouts.  It is a type of pass glass with a slender spout used for drinking by pouring the liquid directly into the user’s mouth.

H: 20.3 cm

18th Century

Ref: Art in Glass, Toledo Museum of Art, 1969  page 63

Spanish glass cantir from Catalonia

27E Spanish glass cantir from Catalonia

PERGAMON AND THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 23, 2019

This exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art was from April 18 to July 17, 2016. Pergamon, was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometers from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. This exhibition of 264 diverse artworks was mainly wonderful marble Greek and Roman sculpture.  The Hellenistic glass though small in number was spectacular.

Some marble and bronze Greek and Roman sculpture

Exhibition Overview of Show

The conquests of Alexander the Great transformed the ancient world, making trade and cultural exchange possible across great distances. Alexander’s retinue of court artists and extensive artistic patronage provided a model for his successors, the Hellenistic kings, who came to rule over much of his empire. For the first time in the United States, a major international loan exhibition will focus on the astonishing wealth, outstanding artistry, and technical achievements of the Hellenistic period—the three centuries between Alexander’s death, in 323 B.C., and the establishment of the Roman Empire, in the first century B.C.

The exhibition represents a historic collaboration between The Met and the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, whose celebrated sculptures will comprise approximately one-third of the works on view. Numerous prominent museums in Greece, the Republic of Italy, other European countries, Morocco, Tunisia, and the United States will also be represented, often through objects that have never before left their museum collections.

ROMAN GLASS FOUND IN THE DAKHLEH OASIS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 20, 2019

Dakhleh oasis is in the Western desert of Egypt.  The human history in this oasis started during the Pleistocene, when nomadic tribes settled sometimes there, in a time when the Sahara climate was wetter and where humans could have access to lakes and marshes. But about 6,000 years ago, the entire Sahara became drier, changing progressively into a hyper-arid desert. The first contacts between the pharaonic power and the oases started around 2550 BCE.  The fortified Islamic town of Al Qasr was built at Dakhla Oasis in the 12th century probably on the remains of a Roman era settlement.  The glasses below are from the Roman period.

This link describes a very special discovery of a unique Roman painted pitcher (below) showing gladiatorial scenes. http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/ancient-cultures/files/2013/04/ismant-gladiator-jug.pdf

 

 

AMERICAN EARLY GLASS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 17, 2019

All of the Glass Shown is From The Allaire Collections

The collection of American glass is displayed as types and not as a time line.

Pitkin Bottle 1788-1830

 POPCORN PITKIN 46A

Pitkin Flask, Early American Glass 07A,08A,19A,39A,43A,46A,54A,89A

Pattern-molded Bottles 19th Century

AMERICAN SWIRL BOTTLE 12A

Scroll Flask, Early American Glass 11A

Poison Bottle with Hobnail Pattern 47A

Midwestern Aquamarine Swirl and Club Bottles 15A, 29A,58A, and 64A

American Pattern-Molded Bottles and Flasks 36A,37A,11A,12A,15A,58A, and 64A

Chestnut Bottles and Handled Whiskey Bottles 19th Century

American Chestnut Bottle 05A,25A and 33A

AMERICAN HANDLED WHISKEY BOTTLE WITH SEAL 13A

AMERICAN HANDLED WHISKEY BOTTLE 28A

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Pitchers 19th Century

 

Honeycomb pitcher 01A, Pittsburgh Creamer 02A, Lion Mask pitcher 61A, Blue pitcher 63A, Juno’s green pitcher 57A

 

Salts, Bowls and Dishes c. 1765-1890

Wine Glasses and Strap Handled Mugs

Water and Whiskey Pattern-molded Tumblers c. 1850-1899

Fry glass 1916-1930

The Fry glass in our collection is the heat resistant borosilicate glass made by H. C. Fry Glass Company in Rochester, PA 1902-1930. This company made complete dinner sets, tea sets and a large variety of heat-resistant oven glassware from 1916 to 1930 under a license from the Corning Glass Works.

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GLASS AT THE RISD MUSEUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 15, 2019

Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD Museum) is an art museum in Providence affiliated with the Rhode Island School of Design, in the state of Rhode Island. The museum was founded in 1877 and is the 20th largest art museum in the United States. The department of Ancient Art includes bronze figural sculptures and vessels, an exceptional collection of Greek coins, stone sculpture, Greek vases, paintings, and mosaics, a fine collection of Roman jewelry and glass.

Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) is a fine arts and design college located in Providence, in the state of Rhode Island. It has consistently been ranked among the best educational institutions in the world for art and design.

Founded in 1877, it is located at the base of College Hill; the RISD campus is contiguous with the Brown University campus. The two institutions share social, academic, and community resources and offer joint courses.

Below are a few examples from their ancient to modern glass collection.

SIDON ANCIENT GLASS CENTER

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 12, 2019

Sidon

Sidon was renowned as a bronzeworking and glass center . Luxury glass vessels were also produced at multiple cities in the eastern Mediterranean, but Sidon’s sand was reputedly the best quality for glass making.  Its name carried a particular cachet: several ancient glassmakers identify themselves as “Sidonian” in signatures on vessels. Therefore “Sidonian glass vessels ” were not always made in Sidon but  Sidon’s sand was used to make the vessel.  Below is a classic example of a Sidonian glass bottle.

SIDONIAN BOTTLE WITH SCROLL DESIGN of ALLAIRE COLLECTION

(43R) First Century A.D. H: 8cm

Remards: This is a light violet mold-blown bottle with a single light green handle which was probably made in Sidon.  Sidon is located in the modern country of Lebanon and has been a glass manufacturing center from the time it was a Phoenician city about 4000 BC.  It may be the city where glass was first made.  During the Roman period Sidon also continued to be a glass manufacturing center.  A large group of these small mold-blown bottles of this type are thought to come from this area and were made in the first Century.  Sidonian bottles were made in many different motifs and colors but are all in the general size and shape of this example.

Additional examples on this site: AMPHORISKOS, MOLD-BLOWN SIDONIAN JUG, AMPHORISKOS WITH “FLOATING HANDLES”, JUGLET WITH COBALT BLUE HANDLE

Ref: Constable Maxwell #105 (light brown), Stern 1995, Toledo Museum # 55, Nico F. Bijnsdorp book FASCINATING FRAGILITY # 230 (manganese), The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass (manganese with cobalt blue handle)

 

Tyre and Sidon

The thriving Phoenician cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast exported cedar, olive oil, wheat, and wine, and they imported linen, jewels, and silk.  Expensive purple dye, luxury clothing, perfumes, and cosmetics were at the core of Tyre and Sidon’s prosperity during the Roman period.

Both have been major ports for many centuries, but their maritime trade was now enhanced by harbors greatly expanded with concrete breakwaters built using Roman engineering techniques. Roman structures still stand—buildings, bridges, arches, roads, piers, and breakwaters—thanks in large part to the concrete and mortar that the Roman engineers designed. Amazingly, even in corrosive saltwater environments, Roman concrete harbor structures have remained strong and intact for more than 2,000 years. This Roman invention was never duplicated or understood until modern times. See this link for more information on Roman concrete.

 

The following glass example and some of the descriptions of Tyre and Sidon in this post come from a show at The Metropolitan Museum of Art  World Between Empires.

TECHNICAL QUESTIONS ABOUT HISTORICAL GLASS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 8, 2019

THE TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF HISTORICAL GLASS

Click on title questions to see the discussion pages

WHAT IS THE CHEMISTRY OF ROMAN GLASS ?

Roman Glass, Allaire Collection

Roman Glass, Allaire Collection

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OPAL, DICHROIC AND OPALESCENT GLASS?

104E Art Nouveau glass vase 1890-1900

104E Art Nouveau glass vase 1890-1900

WHAT IS THE IRIDESCENCE ON ANCIENT GLASS ?

 

CLEANING ANCIENT AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS

WEATHERED ARCHAEOLOGICAL GLASS

ANCIENT GLASS AT THE GRAND CURTIUS MUSEUM IN LIEGE BELGIUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on April 5, 2019

The Grand Curtius Museum is a museum of archaeology and decorative arts, located on the bank of the Meuse River in Liège, classified as a Major Heritage of Wallonia. It was built sometime between 1597 and 1610 as a private mansion for Jean Curtius also known as Jean De Corte, industrialist and munitions supplier to the Spanish army.  The museum complex of art and history of the Liège region brings together several museums in one, with prestigious collections showcased in a remarkable scenography. The weaponry, glass, archaeology, decorative art, Mosan art and religious art divisions are grouped in an architectural complex structured around the beautiful inner yards pictured below.

Pictures by The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

The glass collection of the Grand Curtius Museum is exceptional. It contains about ten thousand pieces and traces the history of glass from ancient times to the present day. Besides the Roman and Merovingian, they have an outstanding collection of Venetian and façon de Venise-glass. Below are pictures of some the Museum’s glass collection.

Pre-Roman to Late Roman Glass

Merovingian Glass

Examples of  Later Europe Glass

 

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