Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 31, 2021

BYZANTINE FLASK of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen


Origin: Syro-Palestinian end 4th early 5th century AC. (Byzantium?)

Dimensions: H 9 cm.; largest ø 6 cm.; ø mouth 3,5 cm.; weight 54,6 grams.

Flask made from still somewhat transparent greenish glass, which over time got an irisation of different colours. The somewhat pear shaped body narrows down to a quite wide neck. The body of the flask is decorated with for this period characteristic chain like decoration made from bluish glass threads. The glass of the body has been kind of pinched to simulate openings thru which the decorating thread seems to be wound. As extra decoration a bluish glass thread has been applied in the middle of the “chain” decoration. To embellish the decoration two small looped handle like attachments made from blue glass have been added which overlap the chain type decoration.
The neck has been endorsed with quite firm blue glass trails. The somewhat outward rolled mouth of the flask got a firm blue glass enforcement. The bottom is slightly kicked in. No sign of a pontil.

Parallels: A similar parallel can be seen at Hans van Rossum post on this site.
– Arts, A collection of Ancient Glass, 500 BC – 500 AD, pg. 75 nr. 76 (decoration)
– Neuburg, Antikes Glas, nr. 64 (decoration)
– Christies Ancient Glass, formerly the Koffler-Truninger Collection nr.15,
London, April 2009 nr. 9,
– Bayley, Freestone, Jackson and others, Glass of the Roman World, pg. 90, fig. 7.15
bottom left for the more or less similar decoration and handles.

– Archaelogical Center Jaffa (Robert Deutsch) Auction 28 no. 182 (catalogue 2002)
– Cuperus , Glass from the Roman Empire, 2009, nr. PEC 058, pg. 35.

– Cuperus, Glass from the Roman Empire, PEC 058, pg. 35.

Additonal post on similar subjects:

Byzantine Glass (active link)

Chain Trailing Decoration on as seen on above flask (active link)

Late Roman Flask of Hans van Rossum (active link)


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 27, 2021
1 B

During the first half of the 16th century Medieval beakers with an open-work base or foot were mainly the products of German forest glasshouses, e.g., prunted beakers, Stangenglaser and Scheuern. The construction of such a base is shown in Fig. 60. Around the year 1550 the open-work pattern was gradually modified to a rather flat foot constructed of fused threads of glass. Fragments have been found of the open-work foot pattern among debris from 16th century glasshouses in the Southern Netherlands.

Paraphrased from the book: Henkes- Glass Without Gloss, Utility glass from five Centuries excavated in the low countries 1300-1800. Harold E. Henkes, 1994

A Book: Baumgartner-Glas: Des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, Die Sammlung Karl Amendt, Erwin Baumgartner, Dusseldorf, 2005

B Book: Medieval Glass for Popes Princes and Peasants, The Corning Museum of Glass, David Whitehouse, 2010

C Book: Baumgartner-Phonix aus Sand Und Asche, Glas des Mittlelalters,


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 23, 2021


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 18, 2021

FUNNEL or INFUNDIBULUM of Hans van Rossum

Date: 1st century A.D. | Roman Empir Size: ↑9.2 cm | ø max. 5.4 cm | Weight: 10 g

Technique           Free blown

Classification     Morin-Jean: 1977: 146-7, Form 117 | Isings 1957, Form 74

Condition            Intact, with traces of brown encrustation

Description         Transparent pale green, very thin glass; bell-shaped body. Rim outdplayed and turned up at lip, which was cracked off and fire-polished; long and conical spout. Lower rim apparently fire-polished too.

Remarks I            Although they are not common, glass funnels have a wide distribution in the Mediterranean and the western provinces. Examples have been found at Rome, Naples, and Pompeii and numerous other places. Funnels, which were also made of metal and earthenware, were used in the kitchen and by physicians and perfume sellers for decanting small quantities of liquid. Spouts of the glass funnels are often found damaged. An intact example is rare.

Remarks II           The weight of this funnel is only 10 gram(!), the result of using very thin glass, a                                                 characteristic for a production during the first century A.D.

Provenance         Arte Primitivo NewYork, auction 11 June 2021 lot no. 665

                              Private collection USA, acquired from Fortuna Fine Arts Ltd in 2000

                              with Fortuna Fine Arts Ltd. ; Solid Liquid 1999 cat. no. 123

Reference             Mémoires de Verre de l’archéologie à l’art contemporain, C. Vandour 2009 no. 132f

                               Bonhams Antiquities London, auction 22 September 1998 lot no. 237

                                Ancient Glass in the Hermitage Collection, N. Kunina 1997 nos. 384 – 385

                                Roman Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass – Volume I,  D. Whitehouse 1997 no. 354

                                Vetri antichi del Museo Vetrario di Murano, G.L. Ravagnan 1994 no. 397

                                Verres Antiques et de l’Islam, Ancienne Collection de Monsieur D., G. Loudmer & A. –                                              M. Kevorkian 3 & 4 Juin 1985 lot 244

                                Verrerie d´Epoque Romaine, Collection des Musées Départementaux de Seine Maritime, G.                                           Sennequier 1985 no. 306

                                Lateinischen Gefäβnamen, W. Hilgers 1969 no. 198

                                Römisches geformtes Glas in Köln, Band VI, F. Fremersdorf 1961 Tafel 49. nos. 941, N                                               997 & N 998, from burials on the Luxemburger Straβe, Cologne


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 16, 2021

The Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne

Blue colored glass has been made since the very beginning of glass making.  Most blue glass is given its color either from cobalt oxide or from copper oxide finely ground and added to the molten glass. Copper is a more delicate colorant than cobalt. It only requires a small amount of cobalt oxide to produce a deep rich blue. In Cologne Germany between the 3rd and 4th centuries exceptionally beautiful blue glass pitchers were made. This pictorial post accents these pitchers.

Click on the active link more of their collection THE ROMAN-GERMANIC MUSEUM IN COLOGNE

The Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne
The Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne
The Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne
The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 12, 2021

English Façon de VeniseGlass By Giacomo Verzelini

Giacomo (Jacopo) Verzelini, a Venetian glass maker moved to England in 1574 and was hired by Jean Carré, a French native and owner of the Crutched Friars Glasshouse. Carré died the following year, and in 1575, Verzelini was placed in charge of the glasshouse. The Crown gave him a 21-year monopoly on the making of Venetian glass in England. His interests were further protected by an embargo on the importation of glass from Venice.

The object pictured above is at the Corning Museum of Glass. Many of the goblets made at Verzelini’s glasshouse were diamond-point engraved by Anthony de Lysle, who had immigrated from France.   Below are two additional views of this glass.

Additional examples below

Victoria & Albert Museum, London
The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England
The British Museum

History of Venetian and Façon de Venise Wine Glasses

Venice became the dominant glass manufacturing center from the 15th to the end of the 16th century. Glass objects in the Venetian style are of the finest quality light weight glass with attributes like delicacy, elaborateness, colorfulness (enamel decoration) created by highly skilled glass workers. Byzantine craftsmen and glass workers played an important role in the development of Venetian glass when they migrated from Constantinople to Venice in 1204 and again in 1453. Towards the end of the 13th century, the center of the Venetian glass industry was moved to Murano. By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control over the color and transparency of their glass and had mastered a variety of decorative techniques. Murano artisans used specialized tools in the making of their glass. Some of these tools include borselle (tongs or jacks used to form the hot glass), soffietta (known as a puffer and used to inflate a vessel after it has been transferred to the punty), pontello or punty (an iron rod to which the craftsman attaches the glass after blowing to add final touches), scagno (the glass-master’s work bench) and tagianti (large glass-cutting clippers). Near the end of the 16th century Venice started to lose control over the luxury glass market. By the 17th century Façon de Venise (in the style of Venetian glass) was adopted in many countries of Europe and England. It should be noted that at approximately the same time period as the Venetians, highly skilled glassworkers were also busy in Altare. It is quite difficult to make a distinction between glass objects made in Venice or Altare. It is sometimes stated that the spreading of the art of making sophisticated glass over Europe mainly came from trained glass workers from Altare as there was a ban on the free movement of glass workers from Venice. What we nowadays call Façon de Venise glass made in Spain, France, and the Netherlands can be seen as the combined contributions of glass workers from Altare and Venice. The renaissance of glass making in Britain can also be attributed to glass workers from Italy. It remains quite difficult and tricky declaring glasses of Venetian/Altarian origin or Façon de Venise. For some it is quite clear, and others can fall either way. Verre de Fougère is a sub-type of Façon de Venise glass from France and refers to glass made using fern-ash as a flux. The ash can give a specific “smoky”, brownish, ginger or sandy coloring to the glass.



Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 8, 2021

Oil Lamp With Three Looped Handles

The Augustinus Collection of Ancient Glass

Name: AcoaG # 71 Oil Lamp With Three Looped Handles

Date: 325-355 A.D. Kisa form: F345.

Size: Height: 12.6 cm | Ø Mouth: 6.7-7.0 cm | Ø Body : 9.6 cm| Weight: 137 gr.

Technique: Freely blown bottle with extended neck and upwards extended rim.

Bottle of amber colored glass, that now glows golden, and dark blue ornaments for the meandering around the mid-body, one thin line encircling the shoulder of the body, plus three looped handles brought up from the shoulder to the rim.

Production: possibly Israel*.

Description: Kisa F 345. *This kind of vessel also may have been in use as a storage cup for good offerings, when placed among grave goods (Seligman et al. 1996), according to Stuart Fleming.

The blue meandering lines are created perfectly well all around the body as if a series of waves is passing by, with a perfect top at the height of each wave,

Condition: Complete with a few cracks, heavy gold and white iridescense that emphasizes the way the bottle was blown and twisted.

Remarks: The three loops implicate the bottle to be a lamp, rather than a unguent pot.  Stuart Fleming states that these vessels, although used as lamps, were placed in the graves as pots to give the deceased their necessary ointment into the here-after.

The zig-zag meandering comes from the frequently used color-ornaments in the sand core-technique of ages before.

The line on the belly of the body, that seems to occur on all similar kind of lamps, might be the line of indication to fill the lamp with oil.

Provenance: Previously unpublished. Brought into the Augustinus collection in the nineteen fifties.

Reference: Kisa, La Baume, Kunina, Stuart Fleming: E.18/E.20


Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on October 4, 2021

Façon De Venice Cylindrical Goblet

of the Henk-Martin Goldschmidt collection

Façon de Venice cylindrical Goblet

Description: Glass of greyish tint, the large cylindrical straight-sided chalice with applied and pincered trail at the base (15 pinches), set on a merese, the stem comprising a ribbed and gilded cushion knob set on a merese between two plain sections, above a plain cushion knob, over a conical folded foot. The ribbed vertical knob (22 ribs) is decorated with gold.

Material: Cristallo glass with a greyish tint, traces of gold gilding

Dimensions: Total height 15.3 cm, diameter foot 7.7 cm, diameter chalice 8.7 cm, weight 142 gram, lightness ratio (= volume in ml / weight in gr) is calculated as 3.1 ml/gr. Such a high number is illustrative of glasses produced in Venice or by Venetian masters. The thinness of the glass of a chalice is 1.1 mm for a typical renaissance venetian glass while in this case is 1.4 mm, i.e. 27% thicker.

Gold gilded, hollow knob with 22 ribs

Condition: Perfect, no damage or imperfections

Date: Around 1600, plus or minus 25 years. The various references vary quiet a lot. However, because of the gilding, it has to be produced after 1530 (the technique was then invented). And also because of the archeological findings and parallel’s a dating around 1600 seems probable. Glasses with the same function and dated one century earlier and from Venice have a different foot and stem (ref 1, pag 204 – 206).

Origin: Façon de Venice: two options seem to appear. Based upon stylish features such as shape and color, Hall-in-Tirol was suggested (ref 2). The shape of the knob fitts this as well (ref 3). Based upon archaeological findings The Lower Countries (Mechelen and Liege / Maastricht) were suggested (ref 4). A good description on how the cooperation and exchange between the towns of South Germany, Hall near Innsbruck and Venice is given by Edward Dillon (ref 5).  The lightness ratio of 3.1 ml/gr suggests a Venetian origin. At this point in time is the best estimate: Central Europe. Because of the height of the cylinder, it is not likely to be a reliquary however for a regular wine glass it has a rather large content: 446 ml. Reliquary’s can typically be associated with the catholic religion and the geographical areas within that is practiced. The Northern European, protestant areas possible possibly like the shape of this type of glasses but gave it another use such as for celebration wine drinking (ref 6). Henkes (ref 4) describes this type of glass as luxurious table glass (a show glass). It is hard to distinguish if, in this case, the cover is missing. But because of this reasoning that becomes unlikely.

Provenance: Collection Bomers-Marres (Number BM 22, ref 6), then The Overduin Collection via Laméris in 2006, Amsterdam, auctioned at Bonhams in May 2014 as lot number 4 but not sold (ref 2), it was acquired from the late Constant Vecht, Amsterdam on March 11th 2016.

Parallels and buildup: Glasses with bowls of similar shape are illustrated in ref. 1. Very often lionhead’s or masks are presented on the stem. A doomed lit accompanies also often the glasses of typically around 30 cm, double the height of this glass.

Regarding the joint between the cylindrical chalice and its bottom three options were found:

  • Plain, with no decoration (e.g., Hamburger collection, FH 67, page 58-59, ref 7, and Reflects de Venice, page 94-95, ref 8, and Bomers-Marres collection, BM21, page 18, ref 6, and Veste Coburg collection, number 312, page 320-322, ref 1, and Corning museum of glass, number 2005.3.119, and Liaunig collection, part II, page 16 – 17, ref 9)
  • A thread added with some incisions (e.g., the glass discussed here, Corning Museum Of Glass, number 79.3.997, with an applied and notched band of glass)
  • A thread added with multiple incisions (e.g., number 475, Krug collection, part II, page 105, ref 10, and 46.19 Henkes, page 209, ref 4, and Reflects de Venice, page 116-117, ref 8, and Kunstgewerbemuseum in Prague, number 21, page 37, ref 11)

It feels as if the cylinder and its bottom were manufactured in one run and afterwards the rim was added. This can also be seen with the glass in the Liaunig collection (part I, page 26 – 27, ref 9).

Conclusion: The decorated joint between the cylinder and the chalice bottom as well as the ribbed knob with gold gilding are characteristic for this goblet. This specific patron of incisions could not be found elsewhere. Glasses with this form are found in churches for relics (high cylinder) or on paintings together with other table ware (low cylinder). Gold gilding appears to be present in both types and is, because of the functions described, understandable.

Comment and Reply:

“As I understand it the gold on the knop is not applied by Gilding but by rolling the hot glass in gold leaf, gathering over it and then blowing into an optic mold. Gilding is the application of gold to the surface of an object using gilders size and therefore a process done cold.” by James Carcass

Reply: Thanks for your valid correction. For an in depth essay of the various processes in joining gold with glass I refer to “Gold Leaf, Paint & Glass by Francis Federer (2013) with an introduction by William (Bill) Gudenrath explaining the various techniques”. Here in the blog I used the wording ‘gold gilding’ merely as ‘glass with gold on it’ with no reference to the technique used. Although by putting 1530 as a date to count from in dating the glass that means the process of hot fusion was used probably. A careful observation of the knob confirms so as well (see picture of knop). 


1. Venezianisches glas der Veste Coburg, Anna-Elisabeth Theuerkauff-Liederwald, Luca Verlag, Lingen, 1994, pages 320 – 322

2. Catalogue Bonhams, Auction May 21st 2014, London, lot 4 unsold

3. Die Glashutten zu Hall en Insbruck, Erich Egg, Universitatsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck, 1962, abb 30 und 41

4. Glass without gloss, Harold E Henkes, Rotterdam Papers 9, 1994, pages 209 – 210

5. Glass, Edward Dillon, Methuen and Co, London, 1907, pages 271 – 273

6. Anna and Kitty Laméris, The glass shape throughout the centuries. Collection Bomers-Marres (in Dutch), 2006, Amsterdam, pages 10, 18-19

7. A life with glass. The Fred Hamburger Collection, Kitty and Anna Laméris, Amsterdam, 2019, pages 58 – 59

8. Reflets de Venise, Erwin Baumgartner, Publications Du Vitro Centre Romont, 2015, Number 29, pages 94 – 95 (i.e. Corning Museum of Glass (CMOG), accession number 2005.3.119) and number 40, pages 116 – 118

9. Catalogues Sammlung Liaunig (low cylinder), Glas part I and II, page 24 and 26

10. Catalogue Sammlung Helfried Krug, Birgitte Klesse, Part II, Rudolf Habelt Verlag, Bonn, 1973, number 475, page 104-5

11. Venezianisches Glas, Karel Hettes, Artia Praha, 1960, page 37 and abb 21

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