Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

The Cloisters Museum and Gardens In Northern Manhattan

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 30, 2022

The Cloisters museum and gardens, the branch of The Metropolitan Museum of Art is devoted to the art and architecture of medieval Europe. The Cloisters itself was assembled from architectural elements that date from the twelfth through the fifteenth century. Located in a spectacular four-acre setting overlooking the Hudson River with views of the George Washington Bridge, the building incorporates elements from five medieval cloisters—Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa, Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert, Bonnefont-en-Comminges, Trie-en-Bigorre, and Froville—and from other monastic sites located in southern France. It opened to the public in 1938. The building and its cloistered gardens—located in Fort Tryon Park in northern Manhattan—are treasures in themselves, effectively part of the collection housed there. The Cloisters’ collection comprises approximately three thousand works of art from medieval Europe, dating from about the ninth to the sixteenth century. Follow this link for additional history of the Cloisters.

ROMAN GLASS SIMPULUM (LADLE)

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 25, 2022

NFB 396 LADLE (simpulum) From Nico F. Bijnsdorp

Date/Origin/Dimensions/Weight

Late 1st – early 2nd century AD. Italian, probably Adriatic coast.

H handle: 9.5 cm. H cup: 2.9 cm. D rim: 8.8 cm. D base: 3.8 cm. Weight: 38 gr.

Classification: Scatozza Höricht 1995: Form 17b.

Condition: Intact. Few stable stress cracks. Some weathering.

Technique: Free blown. Handle and foot applied and tooled.

Description: Transparent natural green glass.

The rounded rim folded out-, down- and upward, thus forming a hollow collar

The body with convex wall, almost diagonally curving to the pushed in hollow base ring. Slightly concave bottom with remains of a pontil mark. A flattened strap handle dropped on the rim, drawn up vertically and bent down inward to form a loop for hanging. Tip of handle snapped off on top.

Acquired: 23 February 2021, Lombrail-Teucquam Auctions, La Varenne Saint Hilaire, France.

Remarks:

(1) An old collection label glued on backside of handle, reading “FOR 06.07.1”.

(2) A simpulum was used in Roman times at sacrifices to make libations, to taste wines and liquors and as serving spoon. It was a sign of Roman priesthood and one of the insignia of the College of Pontiffs, a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the state religion. The simpulum was often shown on coins of many Roman emperors in the first and second centuries as well as on consular and colonial medals.

(3) Most simpula are made of metals like silver and bronze. A glass example is rare.

(4) In most cases the top of the handle is bent out- and upwards. The handle of this simpulum is bent in- and downwards so it can be hung up.

Published: Lombrail-Teucquam MDV 23 February 2021, No. 145.

References: JGS 1963, Alfonso Franciscis, p. 137-139, five simpula excavated in Ercolano. ,Scatozza Höricht 1995, Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei, Pl. VIII and XXVII. ,Massabò 2001, Magiche Trasparenze, No. 76. , Larese & Zerbinati 1998, Seminario Vescovile Rovigo, No. 15, p. 128. ,Lazar 2003, Mestni Muzej Ljubljana, p. 23 and p.123.

The Windwill Collection: https://ancientglass.wordpress.com/2019/05/11/roman-glass-simpulum-2/

The Augustinus Collection: https://ancientglass.wordpress.com/2017/11/13/roman-glass-simpulum/

The Hans van Rossum Collection: https://ancientglass.wordpress.com/2016/08/24/roman-simpulum-2/

MEDITERRANEAN CORE-FORMED AMPHORISKOS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 21, 2022

AcoaG # 50 CORE-FORMED GLASS AMPHORISKOS

of
The Augustinus Collection of Ancient Glass

Date :               Mid Second Century B.C. to first Decade of First Century A.D.

Size: ↑ 15.7cm | Ø Body: 6.1 cm | Ø Mouth: in: 1.5 cm; out: 2.95cm | Ø Height Body: 8.1 cm;  Length Neck, Body to Rim: 6 cm; Wideness Neck: 2.1 cm | Weight: 171 grs. |

Technique:  Polychrome glass vessel core-formed as an amphoriskos. Applied rim-disk, handles and baseknob; applied marvered threads of yellow and light-blue on a dark kobalt-blue base of glass. The handles were placed after finishing of the spiral threads on the neck and after that, the feathering of the body in the same colors. The sequence in the production process was well considered. Production place probably Cyprus, following a written note that comes with the glass.

Description: Grose: group III : 2B. With a slightly longer neck.  Harden Form: 7B, 1981, pp 122-123.

Condition: Intact with some minor cracks, vague iridescense and pitting; with large patches of white- and cream-colored weathering.

Remarks:

Susan H. Auth speaks in her Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum-catalogue (1976), of the content of Amphoriskos no: 50.1366 (page 37): ‘ The original contents of this vessel have been preserved intact. The viscous brown and odorless liquid was apparently kept inside by the weathering layer which covered the stopper. Scientific analysis shows that the contents where either a perfume with an olive oil base, or possibly an early form of soap. The latter was an uncommon product in antiquity’.

– Analyses by Robert Brill, Corning Museum of Glass, and Kurt Beck, Vassar College. –

ROMAN GLASS LONG NECK JUG

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 16, 2022

Roman Glass Jug with Long Neck of  Hans van Rossum

Roman Jug with Long Neck

Roman Jug with Long Neck

Third quarter of 1st century – first part of 2nd century AD | Production in the Northwestern part of the Roman Empire; said to be found in Nijmegen (NL) ancient Noviomagus
Size: ↑29.7 cm | ø 14.6 cm | Weight 440 g

Technique: Free blown, handle applied; tooled.

Classification: See Isings 1957 form 52b (for the specific long neck and the handle) and 55b (variant; conical body and concave base) | Morin-Jean 1913 form 58, fig. 142 (variant)

Description: Greenish glass, rounded conical, almost bulbous body. Diagonal folded rim, edge bent out, up, in and flattened, long, narrow cylindrical neck (↑ 13.0 cm.) with tooled constriction at junction with slightly convex body expanding out, open base ring, concave base, formed by a narrowing in the lower part of the belly. Angular ribbon handle with central rib in high relief, applied on upper body and attached to neck below rim, in a double fold, drawn up and attached to rim of edge. Excess glass snapped off. The lower handle terminal is formed as a three-pronged claw attachment, and the central projection is extended and decorated with a spur of nine tooled or pinched ‘teeth’. No pontil mark.  This vessel is exceedingly rare and a masterpiece.

Condition: Small damage to the handle and a very small ancient times star crack (ø 0,7 cm.) on lower part of the body; visible but not touchable, so only on the inner side of the glass. (Professionally restored and consolidated by Restaura, Haelen NL.) Almost clear, area with slightly incrustation.

Remarks: The most important difference between this bottle and the usual examples of type Isings 55b lies in the shape of the belly, which is commonly conical or carinated. The rounded conical, almost bulbous body and open base ring for a ‘long-necked’ jug is extremely rare. Isings mentions one specimen with an identical rounded conical,almost bulbous body, from Bartlow Hills (UK), barrow (mound) I.

Hoge kan van Barlow Hills, 1832

Jug from Barlow Hills, 1832

The similarity with this jug is striking and the almost bulbous body makes them both exceedingly rare. This jug was, together with the other relics from Bartlow Hills,transferred to Easton Lodge, a nearby large house but unfortunately the jug and all the other relics have been lost in a fire that destroyed the house in 1847. (Mrs. Rosemarie Gant, on behalf of Ashdon Village Museum) Another very fine and comparable example is the jug from Esch (Hurk, van den 1986) and a second one which was part of the collection of the Rijksmuseum G. M. Kam at Nijmegen (NL) since 1956, now in the collection of Museum Valkhof at Nijmegen. All specimens with a production in the Northwestern part of the Roman Empire.

Provenance: Collection H. Libregts, Eindhoven (NL), acquired in 1990s.Formerly part of Dutch private collection.

Reference: The Tumuli from the Roman Period of Esch, Province of North Brabant, L.J.A.M. van den
Hurk fig. 11, p. 79, grave IV for an identical example with conical body and base ring but the neck is shorter than in comparison to my jug. This jug is part of the collection of the Noordbrabants Museum, s’Hertogenbosch (NL). Castleford, West Yorkshire: Fragmentary purple jug without decoration, from context dated AD 80 – 140 in vicus (Cool and Price 1998, 157 no. 51 fig. 53) for an identical example with conical body, base ring and the length of the neck. Museum Valkhof, Nijmegen. Inv. Nr.: 4.1955.6(1) Glass of the Caesars, D. B. Harden no. 69.

Literature: Roman Glass from dated finds, C. Isings 1957, form 52 and 55. Romano-British Glass Vessels: a Handbook, Price and Cottam 1998 pp. 150-156. The Tumuli from the Roman Period of Esch, Province of North Brabant, Hurk, van den, pp. 78 – 79. ATVATVCA 1, Roman Glass in Germania Inferior. Interregional Comparisons and Recent Results, G. Creemers, D. Demarsin & P. Cosyns, pp. 17-18 Letter from John Gage, Esquire, Director, to Hudson Gurney, Esq. Vice President, 8fc. accompanying a Plan of Sorrows called the Bartlow Hills, in the parish of Ashdon in Essex, with an account of Roman sepulchral relics recently discovered in the lesser Barrows’ by J. Gage in Archaeologia 25, 1834, pp. 1-23. ‘Rijksmuseum G. M. Kam’ in Verslagen der rijksverzamelingen van geschiedenis en kunst 77 (1956), pp. 189 – 201 by H.J.H. van Buchem.

Click on the objects below or put your mouse on the picture to see the title.

  

TWO VENETIAN WINE GLASSES AND A KANGXI WING VASE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 9, 2022

Two Venetian wine glasses and a Kangxi wing vase

representing “The Silk Road”

of Henk-Martin Goldschmidt Collection

The handles of the vase seem to be inspired by Venetian wing glasses from the same time. The base of the wing is comparable to the blue wavy attachment of the left glass, up to the top curl, the “combs” on that of the right glass. In this case, the combs have a waffle pattern, but a relief of hatchings as painted on the Chinese vase also occurs. Museum Veste Coburg holds a rare glass vase of exactly the same shape as this Chinese one, including the undulating rim around the neck.

Description: Blue and white painted vase with wings, China Kangxi, last quarter of the 17th century (h: 19,8 cm) positioned between two Venetian Winged glasses, second half of the 17th century or early 18th century (h: 17,5 cm and 13,0 cm respectively).

The Silk Road was a network of caravan as well as shipping routes through Central Asia, traded for many centuries between China and Eastern Asia on one side and the Middle East and Mediterranean on the other. For centuries, from classical antiquity to the late Middle Ages, the Silk Road was the good link between East and West. The first person to use the name Silk Road (Seidenstraße) was the German geographer and explorer Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1877.

The Silk Road trade played a significant role in the development of the civilizations of China, Korea, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, Iran, Europe, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic relations between the civilizations. Though silk was the major trade item exported from China, many other goods and ideas were exchanged, including religions (especially Buddhism), syncretic philosophies, sciences, and technologies like paper and gunpowder. So in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. Diseases, most notably plague, also spread along the Silk Road.

It covered a period of 100 BC until the late mediaeval times, mid 15th century. So the depicted glasses here are after that period and the Chinese vase is most probably transported through VOC ships from China towards Europe. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes that connected the East and West, and was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions between these regions from the 2nd century BCE to the collapse in the18th century. The silk trade continued to flourish until it was disrupted by the collapse of the Safavid Empire in the 1720s.

One of the silk roads reached from Konstantinopal to Peking, so porcelain from Jingdezhen could be following this road although by ship was also possible during the last quarter of the 17th century.

Along the Silk Road, over the centuries, many things were transported and spread including silk, diseases, cultural habits, religions but also glass. However glass mainly was transported from west to east, as can be seen trough archeological findings. The transport of ceramics was in the opposite direction. In that picture the three items shown fit.

From left to right:

(I)        Wine glass with wings with aquamarine colored glass

Description

Glass has a trumpet-shaped goblet and a cigar-shaped stem (verre a jambe). On either side a wing built from a base of aquamarine-colored glass, which is made up from bottom to top of two triangles with a half heart ending in a curl above.

On this a colorless pinched glass thread, with a decoration of nine pinches on one side and eight pinches on the other side, which then goes down at a sharp angle with a pinch in the tip to the tip of the upper blue triangle where after an extra pinch again at a sharp angle with a pinched tip to the next blue triangle, where after six pinches the thread ends in a long stretched curl. Goblet and stem are connected by a disc (a merese). A disc also connects foot and stem.

Material:        Cristallo and aquamarine-colored glass

Date:               Seventeenth century

Origin:           Italy, Venice

Dimensions:   Height 17,5 cm, diameter cup 12,5 cm and diameter foot 8,5 cm

Condition:      Small crack in the merese. Slight chalk build-up in the goblet.

Provenance

From Belgian collection bought by Laméris, Amsterdam at the Tefaf, in the Nineties, following an advertisement in Collect and a visit to the museum in Toledo, this ensemble purchased from Laméris March 2020.

(II)                   Blue and white painted vase with wings on both sides

Description

Shape: A vase consisting of a flattened sphere, a tapered neck and a flared mouth opening. Neck and mouth opening are separated by a wavy imposed cord. On both sides we see two handles, the ‘wings’. The entire vase is a copy of a (now very rare) 17th century wing vase that, like wing glasses, made of glass or wood, were sent to China by the Dutch as an example to be copied in porcelain. (The question was to recreate the shapes exactly, but to make the decoration as ‘exotic’ as possible. The send back question was if one could not send such complicated shapes!).

Decoration: The decoration is in underglaze blue. All three parts have a floral decoration, in addition, a single bird can be seen on the wide flared mouth opening. The ‘wings’ are shaded and dotted in blue, the top of the mouth opening and the sphere and the bottom of the neck have a decorative band decoration, on the bottom are two concentric circles.

 

Parallels:        This type of vase is offered regularly at various auction houses (e.g. Christie’s, febr 2012, lot 603, Rob Michiel, okt 2015, lot 275, Bonhams, sep 2018, lot 179) and dealers (e.g. van Leeuwen, The Hague, Catherine Hunt, Cheltenham, Gibson, London, Guest and Gray, London).

 

Material:        porcelain

Date:               Kangxi, (1662-1722), last quarter of the 17th century

Origin:           China, Jing de zhen kilns

Dimensions:   Height 19,8 cm, diameter opening 6,8 cm, diameter base 6,6 cm

Provenance:   Laméris, Amsterdam acquired March 2020

Condition:     intact, no restorations

(III)     Wine glass with diamond line engraving of flower branches.

Glass: 

Cup-shaped chalice. Hollow stem with a square knot above an inverted baluster. On either side a wing constructed from an ear-shaped base of aquamarine-colored glass, with five round combs with a waffle pattern and an elongated ornament on the bottom. Slightly conical base. A disc connects cup and stem. A disc also connects foot and stem.

The model of this stem with the wide blown hollow stem in the form of an inverted baluster under two discs, is typical for around 1700. The glasses are engraved (Theuerkauff-Liederwald 1994, cat.no. 299), but also with typical decorations of this time: with a cup in the a penne technique (a funnel-shaped example: Theuerkauff-Liederwald 1994, cat.no. 303). ), ribs (Theuerkauff-Liederwald 1994, cat.no. 300) and diamond line engraving like this one. In Veste Coburg there is a glass with an identical shape with a decoration of flowers in a diamond line engraving (Theuerkauff-Liederwald 1994, cat.no. 298).

Line engraving:

The chalice is engraved on two sides with three branches, one with a large flower in the middle, the other with a bird. The branches consist of, sometimes wavy, lines, the leaves and buds of the side branches are outlined with shaded scratches in them. The flower has a round heart with open scratches in two directions that mingle. The six petals have a recessed circle at the base with dense scratches around it. The bird has feathers and a tail. Leaves and buttons on the foot.

Material:        Cristallo and aquamarine colored glass

Date:               Second half 17th, early 18th century

Origin:           Venice

Height:           13,0 cm,  diameter cup 10,2 cm and diameter foot 8,8 cm

Provenance:   Laméris, Amsterdam acquired March 2020

Condition:     intact, no restorations

Parallels

The Museum Veste Coburg Museum contains a rare glass example of the vase that must have been made after this porcelain vase or, perhaps more logically, the other way around. Even the pinched ribs on the combs are imitated in blue lines, just like the wavy edge around the neck (Theuerkauff Liederwald 1994, cat. No. 644).

Visit Toledo Museum of Art Glass Pavilion, Toledo, Ohio, July 2018. Explanation on museum signs: Southern Netherlandish “Serpent” wine glass, Glass, blown, rooled, about 1650 – 1700, Purchased with funds from the Libby Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, 1953. Number 110b, left and number 90 to the right. Chinese Kangxi Period, 1662-1722,Vase Imitating Venetian “Serpent” Goblet, Porcelain, applied handles, with painted decoration, late 17th century, Puchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, 2004. A hybrid type combining Chinese and European features, the body of this porcelain vase has a gourd shape common in Chinese blue and white porcelain, whereas the applied handles imitate decorations on Venetian and façon de Venise glasses made in The Netherlands and Germany in the second half of the 17th century. Chinese potters may have used a printed image, but more likely copied this feature from an actual glass (or a wooden form). Serpent-stem glasses were certainly among the Dutch luxury goods traded widely, and it is possible that such vessels were made available to Chinese potters to copy.

More examples or known of various forms of (façon de) Venise glass and a counterpart in Chinese porcelain such as a goblet or a stem cup, however the wing glass and wing vase are the most expressive in form. These were also on display Toledo Museum of Art.

References

– Collect journal, March 2020,  24th edition, Snoeck publisher, page 7, advertisement Laméris, Amsterdam

– Description objects by Kitty Laméris, Amsterdam March 10th 2020

– Anna-Elisabeth Theuerkauff-Liederwald, Venezianisches Glas der Veste Coburg, Die Sammlung Herzog Alfreds von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1844-1900), Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg Luca Verlag Lingen 1994, cat.nr. 644 a.o.

– Vanderven Oriental Art – Kangxi porcelain & Coromandel lacquer, published on Apr 12, 2013 on ISSUU, number 3 Wing Vases, page 20 – 21, Den Bosch, The Netherlands

– Chinese blue and white stem cup, Kangxi (1662-1722) decorated with phoenix amongst scrolling clouds, the foot with Daoist emblems, sold by Guest and Grey, London

– For an illustrated example of this vase see William R. Sargent, Treasures of Chinese Export from the Peabody Essex Museum, p. 123, pl. 35

THE LEGION OF HONOR MUSEUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 6, 2022

The Legion of Honor Museum is part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.

1409252103-legion-of-honor-museum-tickets

The Legion of Honor is part of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. The name is used both for the museum collection and for the building in which it is housed. The collection spanning more than 6,000 years of ancient and European art houses the Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts in a neoclassical building overlooking Lincoln Park and the Golden Gate Bridge. They have a fine glass collection of about 3,400 objects of which 114 are ancient Roman and Islamic.

Link to museum web site:  https://legionofhonor.famsf.org/

Below are some pictures of this beautiful glass collection

SMALL ONE HANDLED BARREL ROMAN GLASS JUG

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on March 1, 2022

SMALL ONE HANDLED BARREL JUG of  The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

 

Date: 2nd – 3rd Century AD,  Gaul or Rhineland  Size: H  8.6 cm.  D  4.2 cm

Classification: Isings (1957) form 89, Morin-Jean, form 132, Kisa, form 268,Goethert-Polaschek form 121

Provenance: Private collection Cologne (Germany)

Description:  Greenish, almost colorless, transparent little jug. Cylindrical body divided in three parts, shaped and decorated as a barrel with four continuous horizontal ribs above as well as below. The plain middle section slightly convex. Blown in a two-part mold, nearly flat bottom, no inscription. Free-blown cylindrical neck with rim folded out, round and in, flattened. From shoulder vertically drawn up a delicate flat strap handle (in same color as body) turned in horizontally and then with a loop attached to the rim.

Condition: Completely intact, numerous pinprick bubbles (at one side also two larger glass bubbles). Faint silver and yellow/purple iridescence.

Remarks: Barrel jugs (also called FRONTINUS bottle) as a separate variant on cylindrical bottles are typical for a production in North-West Gaul and the Rhineland, but they are also occasionally found in tombs in the Anglo-Saxon area, Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands.

According to the Roman historian Pliny (23-79 AD) barrel jugs were a specialty of the peoples in the Northern part of the Roman Empire. These wooden vessels probably served for the storage of wine. Another writer (Strabo 19 BC- 19 AD) also pointed out that the Gauls were skillful in making wooden barrels and that reliefs of sculpture from Gaul witnesses of everyday use. Duval suggests that the shape of the bottles may be inspired by the Gallo-Roman God Succellus. This was (even thought in the Celtic times) the God of the agriculture and alcoholic drinks such as wine and beer. The God was depicted with a large hammer (like a wooden barrel) and in the other hand a kind of barrel (olla).

The first glass specimens have been found from the end of the 1st /early 2nd century AD (Isings), the production runs through until the 4th century. Typical are the ridges or grooves on the body, almost always in an equal number of both above and below. In between ian obvious bulging, thus suggesting a keg of which the staves are held together by hoops.  The number of grooves or ribs varies depending on the size of the bottle. The smallest have twice four, the largest seven above and below. Most found jugs (as between 17 and 21 cm high) have five or six. As always there are exceptions: in the collection of the Römisch-Germanisches Museum in Cologne is a small jug (12.6 cm) with four grooves above and six below.

In Isings type 89 globally two groups are differentiated: a. blue-green glass, two handles, larger dimension, usually bottom brand, dating 2nd-4th century AD and b.  virtually colorless glass, one handle, small size, usually no bottom brand, early 3rd-4th century AD (Sennequier). Yet this distinction is not entirely decisive, because at some finds there are also variants in terms of color and dating within these two groups founds. For example, some minor barrel jugs have been found in a 2nd century context. There also is a variant (Rhineland) with a separate extra decoration on the belly (tiny balls or grain of sand)

Capacity: Roman measures of the most common bottles and the conversion liters:

1.5 cyathii                                                           0.068 liter (like the above jug from the Windmill collection) varying in height from 8.2 -11.5 cm

0.5 sextarii (6 cyathii)                                     0.27 liter

1.5 sextarii                                                          0.8 liter

2.0 sextarii                                                          1.078 liter

3.0 sextarii                                                          1,62 liter

4.0 sextarii                                                          2.25 liter (rare)

 

Sennequier: further notes that possibly not only the size determines the use. Maybe they were commercially designed, so the form could exclusively be linked to one particular drink.  As today for example Coca-Cola in its characteristic form.

Most barrel jugs have a brand name at the bottom. It is not entirely sure if this is the name of a glassblower or maybe the owner of the workshop or the merchant.  By the excavations in the 19th century (Abbé Cochet) in Normandy (France) initially was supposed that the center of manufacturing lay in the Forest d’Eu (Seine-Maritime), other scientists also included Boulogne, Beauvais, Gallia Belgica and Cologne as possible workshops where this form would have been produced. Some assume that in North-West Gaul was a kind of headquarters, with branches in the far area. The owner then makes use of its own or glassblower (derived) brand. There would thus be no question of a monopoly position.

In connection with the frequent occurrence of the name FRONTINUS barrel jugs also are referred to with the general name FRONTINUS. There are many variants on FRONTINUS known as FRO, FRON, FRONTI FROTI and others, these are mainly found in France. There are also other marks such as Q CASUS NOCTURNUS, FELIX (FE) and PROMETHEUS. The brand EQVA (with variants) occurs in the area around Cologne, such as Hambach Forst and was not found in France. The production in the Rhineland seems to be of a slighter later date as in Gaul, as shown by the museums of Bonn, Cologne, Duisburg, Worms, Speyer, Trier and Mainz.

As said before small bottles with one handle usually have no bottom brand. The first little ones with an brand have a size from about (11.5 cm high). Sennequier points out that this type is rarely found.

It is assumed that the content of barrel jugs was wine but this is absolutely not sure. The fragility of the glass close reuse virtually out. The glass is generally good, sometimes lumps and impurities in the surface The bottles found in Haute-Normandie (blue-green), often with only one handle, can be dated from 1st century end to end 3rd century and are of good quality. They are replaced by bottles (3rd-4th century) with two handles, these have a slightly different chemical composition and are of significantly lower quality (Sennequier ). Because most bottles were found in graves the use of them have been associated with burial rituals. The vast majority is found in women graves, the really small ones sometimes in a children’s grave as for example in Poitiers (France) where a little barrel jug (7.5 cm high) was placed in a stone sarcophagus (mid 2nd century AD) to the left of the head.

Reference

Römisch-Germanisches Museum Cologne;  Musée Carnavalet  Paris (8.9 cm); Metropolitan Museum New York (11.6 cm); Staatliche Kunstsammlung Kassel (10.8cm); Musée Départemental de Seine-Maritime (8.2 cm); Verres Antiques et de l’Islam, Demeulenaere collection (8.8cm).

 

Pictures made by Aad van den Born

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