Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

ROMAN GLASS STRIGIL

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on February 8, 2018

GLASS STRIGIL of Hans van Rossum

 

 

                                End 2nd – 3rd century AD | Western part of the Roman Empire, Cologne or Gaul

Size ↔ 21.0 cm | Weight 50 g

Technique: Free blown, tooled

Description: Yellowish-green and transparent glass, the handle made of massive glass, twisted two times in two directions, top part pressed together to make a flat, discoid base.  Probably this base was decorated with a small aryballos like no. 249 of F. Fremersdorf & E. Polóny – Fremersdorf, Die farblosen Gläser der Frühzeit in Köln.  Blade made of thick glass, missing top part. On the handle a mark in red: 17.194.1274.

Condition: Good condition, top-part of blade and decoration on top-base missing

Remarks I: A strigil was a body scraper, used in antiquity to clean the body. Athletes would apply a mixture of low-grade olive oil and pumice to their bodies before competing or exercising, which they did completely naked. Coating the bodies in oil was done to avoid dirt from getting into the pores of the skin, but possibly also to avoid sunburn. Afterwards they used strigils to scrape off the oil as well as the sand and dirt which had stuck to it during the contest. But not only athletes used strigils, everybody who wanted to clean his body could use one.

Remarks II: Strigils were usually made of bronze and an example made of glass is exceptional. Only a small number of glass strigils are known. The Corning Museum of Glass has two glass strigils, which are intact; the Metropolitan Museum of Art has one with missing handle – part; the Römisch-Germanischen Museum Köln has two striking identical examples, but damaged and parts of three other glass strigils. The Rheinischen Landesmuseum in Bonn has one, restored and found in Eschweiler-Laurensberg, cross-point Aachen. One intact example was part of the formerly private collection P.L.W. Arts, no. 51.

Remarks III: They were not practical scrapers for use at the baths but were symbolic gifts for the dead, who, it was believed, could use them in the afterlife.

Provenance: Auctioneers and Appraisers, Maryland USA, auction September 2016 lot 1036

Reference: Die farblosen Gläser der Frühzeit in Köln, F. Fremersdorf & E.Polónyi-Fremersdorf, nos.  248 – 252 Christies Antiquities London, auction 6 October 2011 lot 215 Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, accession no. 15.43.197 (Mary Anna Palmer Draper 1914) Römisches und Fränkisches Glas in Köln, O. Doppelfeld nr. 42 Roman, Byzantine and Early Glass, E.M. Stern p. 396, no. 228 for an identical blown rod Die römischen Gläser im Rheinischen Landesmuseum Bonn, A. Follmann-Schulz, no. 55, inv. no. 61.0616.04 Breekbaar Verleden, F.M.A. van den Dries p. 80 (excavated in Stein-Limburg, NL)

In the city of Cologne, on the Aachener Str (street), a part of a handle of a strigil was found. Rare because on the top of this handle-part a miniature aryballos was placed, as decoration and a symbol for something one needed for the Sauna.

 

 

The handle part of this Van Rossum’ strigil also shows a discoid base at the top with small remains of a possible miniature aryballos.

 

Two striking identical glass strigils (L + M) and one bronze example (R) in the Römisch-Germanischen Museum der Stadt Köln (Cologne)

 

ENGLISH INNKEEPER’S WINE GLASS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on February 6, 2018

Allaire Collection

Date: 1820,  Hight: 9.6 cm,  Volume: 27 ml,  Weight: 175 g

Remark: This 1820 wine glass from England can be called an illusion or a trick glass.  An innkeeper, bartender or a toastmaster could then use it to his advantage. The reason for this being that when the glass is filled it only contains about half the the volume while looking full. In that way the innkeeper could stay a bit sober and make some (extra) money when he was offered a drink by a guest at the bar. In Dutch it is called  a waardglas (innkeeper’s glass).

Parallels:see glass #64 Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen 

Provenance: Mark J. West   http://www.markwest-glass.com/

THE TAZZA FROM ANCIENT TO MODERN

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on February 4, 2018

THE TAZZA FROM ANCIENT TO MODERN

Ancient Glass Examples

ROMAN GLASS SHALLOW PEDESTAL DISH

Nico F. Bijnsdorp

3-4th century AD. Egypt, Karanis

BROOKLYN MUSEUM

3-4th century AD. Egypt, Karanis

 

Venetian Glass Examples

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

17th Century

FRIDES LAMERIS ART AND ANTIQUE, AMSTERDAM

2nd half of 16th C.

THE ROBERT LEHMAN COLLECTION, 

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART (NEW YORK)

1500-1525

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART (NEW YORK)

1499-1514

French Glass Examples

CORNING MUSEUM OF GLASS

1550-1599

CENT VERRES FRANCAIS, SYLVIE LHERMITE-KING P-14

Early 17th C.

CENT VERRES FRANCAIS, SYLVIE LHERMITE-KING P-26

Early 17th C.

Spanish Glass Examples

 

FRAGIL TRANSPARENCIA

VIDRIOS ESPANOLES DE LOS SIGLOS #55 P-135

2nd Half og 17th C.

CORNING MUSEUM OF GLASS

Spain, Catalonia, probably Barcelona 1560-1600

 

English Glass Examples

ENGLISH FACON DE VENISE GLASS TAZZA,

ALLAIRE COLLECTION

1670

THE ROBERT LEHMAN COLLECTION, 

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART (NEW YORK)

1720

American Glass Example

AMERICAN COBALT BLUE GLASS FOOTED BOWL,

ALLAIRE COLLECTION

1780-1800

Modern Glass Examples

Salviati Glass

VENETIAN GLASS, CONFECTIONS IN GLASS 1855-1914,

SHELDON BARR

1877-1914

1885-1914

1890’s

1890’s

LIDDED COMPOTE WITH TURQUOISE DECORATION,

ALLAIRE COLLECTION

19th C. or Earlier

GOOGLE IMAGES

Gucci Mid 20th Century Art Deco Style

 

Archibald Knox C. 1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BLUE ROMAN GLASS BOTTLE WITH THIN TRAILING

Posted in 2. Ancient Glass, Roman Glass by Allaire Collection of Glass on February 2, 2018

Date: First Century  H: 11 cm

Description: This deep blue Roman bottle is decorated with a thin colorless glass trail spiraling around the body and onto the base.  Bottle has been repaired using original pieces.

Remarks: When we purchased this glass it had two large holes.  The dealer had the two original pieces so we bought it and planned to have it repaired.  Unfortunately we lost the pieces.  Many years later I found these delicate thin circular pieces of glass while cleaning up the cellar.  The conservator did a great job and it is whole again after 2000 years.

Confusion sometimes arises about the terms “restoration” and “conservation.” Restoration is actually a type of conservation treatment. Specifically it refers to an attempt to bring an object closer to its original appearance. The other type of conservation treatment is stabilization, which refers to an attempt to prevent further deterioration of an object. In all conservation treatments the integrity of the object and maintaining as much of the original material as possible is important.

In glass conservation, a stabilization treatment might include re-assembling the fragments of a broken object, but not making any fills to replace the missing pieces unless they are needed for structural support. A restoration treatment would include making fills to replace the missing fragments so that the object looks whole once again. Conservators do not want to deceive anyone into believing an object is undamaged when it’s not, but the repairs also should not distract from the object itself. As a general rule, restorations should be invisible/unnoticeable from 6 feet away, but visible (to a trained eye) from 6 inches away. by Stephen Koob, conservator for The Corning Museum of Glass.  This is a video on conservation:  https://youtu.be/bOD8IVBcABo

Ref: Whitehouse, Vol. II #700, Kevorkian, 1985 #150-154

Allaire Collection number: 17R

ROMAN CYLINDRICAL GLASS BOTTLE

Posted in 2. Ancient Glass, CATEGORIES OF GLASS TYPES ON THIS SITE, Roman Glass by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 31, 2018

 

Date: Third Century A.D. Size: H: 9.8 cm, Rim: 6.5 cm D,

Description: This graceful bottle is completely covered with a shimmering iridescence.  Cylindrical bottles of this period are characterized by two types of mouth: one folded in and flattened and the other more common funnel mouth with folded rim as in this example. Both types of bottles are consistently made of pale green.  This kind of iridescence is rare. Found in Turkey.

Condition: intact

Reference: Cf. Auth 1976, #443, APC # I-3

Allaire Collection number: 04R

ROMAN GLASS JUG WITH HANDLE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 30, 2018

ROMAN GLASS JUG WITH HANDLE of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen

Roman Jug with Handle

Roman Jug with Handle

Small jug, 2nd -3rd cent. A.D.
Picture by Tom Haartsen

A small Roman jug made from greenish glass. The handle has been attached to the shoulder of the flattened globular body with a kind of horseshoe shaped piece of glass. From there pulled up with a small hollow shaped band, approx. 1 cm wide, to the rim of the jug and attached with a elegant curl, a kind of thumb rest. The rim has been turned inward. The base is almost flat with a small indentation. The dimensions give this jug an elegant distinction.

Dimensions:, H: 7 cm.; largest ø 8,5 cm., ø rim 6 cm.; weight 80,7 gram.

Origin: Most probably Western Empire and from the Köln region.

Parallels:
Until now no parallels found.

Provenance:
– Collection Hammelsbeck, Köln, Marienburg 1950 – 1970,
– Numisart München

Exhibited:
– Roman Glass from private collections, Thermenmuseum Heerlen 2011.

Modern and Contemporary Glass from the Allaire Collection

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 28, 2018

Our interest in glass started with Modern and Contemporary glass in 1983.  We soon discovered ancient Roman glass and the collection went in a different direction.  We started this site in 2009 to share the beauty of glass with those interested.

 

CAST AND CUT BOWLS FROM 500BC-400BC

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 25, 2018

CAST AND CUT BOWLS FROM 500BC-400BC

Dating: The production of these glass bowls, colorless or pale green to olive green are attributed to the period of the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia (559-330 BC).

Description: The forms of the glass bowls are copied from the Achaemenid silver and bronze shapes. They feature either embossed fluting, rosettes of pointed leaves or lobed designs on both deep and shallow bowls with flaring rims.  The shallower bowls are called phiales.

Technique: The technique of manufacture was possibly the lost-wax casting method using the finest quality glass available. Many of these bowls show signs of being cut on the exterior and also polished on both surfaces.

The following bowl drawings are from, Early Ancient Glass, Toledo Museum of Art, 1989, David Grose

Achaemenid Bowls

Metal Prototypes

 

Achaemenid Glass Bowls

 

RHODIAN CAST MONOCHROME BOWL of  Nico F. Bijnsdorp

(This bowl fits better into the Achaemenid group because it is deeper (3.7 cm) then the shallow phialai bowls.)

Rhodian cast monochrome bowl

Rhodian cast monochrome bowl

HELLENISTIC CAST, SLUMPED, CUT GLASS BOWL of David Giles

Hellenistic cast, slumped, cut bowl top

Hellenistic cast, slumped, cut bowl bottom

Bonhams Fine Art Auctioneers

Getty Villa, side view –

Getty Villa, bottom view

 

The State Hermitage Museum

 

Phiale Bowls: Metal Prototypes

Phiale Glass Bowls

Toledo Museum of Art

 

Corning Museum of Glass

 

 

PRISMATIC (“MERCURY”) ROMAN GLASS BOTTLE

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 22, 2018

Prismatic (‘Mercury’) bottle of  The Windmill Collection of Roman Glass

 

Date:  2nd – 3rd century A.D. Size: H = 14.8 cm. D =  3.6 cm

Classification:  Isings (1957), form 84; Morin-Jean (1913), form 19

Provenance:  Private collection Ventura (USA)

Description:  Transparent pale green almost square bottle, blown in a mold with four vertical sections. With slightly tapering body toward the bottom. The base mark has in relief four swirls Freeblown cylindrical tall neck with outsplayed rim.

Condition: intact

Remarks:  Some bottles of this type have a picture of Mercury on the bottom, the Roman God for trade and travelers. The name can probably be traced back to the words merx or mercator, which in Latin stands for merchant or merchant. In addition to an image of Mercury, a large number of variants are known, such as combinations with simple geometrical motifs or floral such as palm branches (also on the wall) and letters, for example, G.H.F.I. or F.I.R.M. The latter could be an abbreviation of the workshop where such a bottle was produced (Latin: Firmii or Firmiorum).

This example does not have an attribute of Mercury, but (as mentioned above) imposes large ¼ corner circles or garlands, which creates a kind of star. Special is that an almost identical bottom brand also occurs on a regular square bottle in the Windmill Collection with short neck (also without handle)

Bottles with the generic name ‘Mercury’ are mainly manufactured in the Rhineland, Gaul, Istria, Dalmatia and Northern Italy. Most are found in the vicinity of Cologne, in Italy, Croatia, Belgium and also in the Netherlands. According to Stern (1977), they probably served as perfume bottles. This would also explain the narrow opening (and long neck) They do not exclude the possibility that they were filled with water from a holy spring in Roman times or were meant for the storage of herbs. Facchini (1998), on the other hand, is of the opinion that several bottles found in Northern Italy containing medicinal residues are considered to be specifically intended for the sale of various medicines.

Due to the rectangular shape, they are ideally suited to be transported in larger numbers at the same time. She further notes that the usual height for this is between 13 and 16 cm and the bottom dimension between 2.5 and 3.5 cm. However, from elsewhere in the western Roman Empire, considerably higher Mercury bottles are known, up to 22.5 cm (Smith collection, Whitehouse 2001) and 26.5 cm (Römisch-Germanisches Museum Cologne, Doppelfeld 1966). Furthermore, larger, hexagonal, specimens have also been found in Dalmatia.

Trade is of all times: thick-walled bottles may have had a content that was precious or dangerous like eye water, but, Morin Jean (1913) notes, it is also not excluded that it was a trick to make the buyer think that there is more in the bottle than was actually the case. After all, man wants to be deceived, ‘homo vult decipi’, so the Romans already knew in ancient times!

Reference:  Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Aquileia (Madruzzato/Mercate 2004/2005, inv. nr. AQ 2005/255); Corning Museum (Whitehouse 2001 vol. II, nrs. 567/585 (Mercury)  ; Musées Départementeaux de Seine-Maritime (Sennequier 1985, nr. 167, no trademark)

THE IRIDESCENT ANCIENT ROMAN GLASS AT THE LEGION OF HONOR MUSEUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on January 19, 2018

The pictures below are only part of the wonderful iridescent ancient Roman glass found in this museum.

 

This is a link to our post of THE LEGION OF HONOR MUSEUM and another to the museum web site:  https://legionofhonor.famsf.org/

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Additional post on this site about iridescence:

 COLLECTORS’ EXAMPLES ROMAN GLASS ARYBALLOI

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