Ancient Glass Blog of The Allaire Collection

ROEMER TYPE WINE AND BEER GLASS FROM THE 16TH CENTURY TO PRESENT

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 29, 2016

ROEMER TYPE WINE AND BEER GLASSES

Roemers (Dutch) or Römer (German) are a type of wine and beer glass that evolved in the Rhineland and the Netherlands from the 17th Century.  They have their roots in the Waldglas particularly the Berkemeyer, Krautstrunk and Nuppenbecher of the later Middle Ages which were produced in northern Germany, the Low Countries and central Europe.  The Roemer style glass is still being produced today.

The forerunners of the Roemer were made in the 15th C as short beakers with an inverted conical shape bowl attached to an open stem decorated with pulled drops or prunts.  These are called Berkemeyers. Over time the glass on these vessels became thinner and the bowls developed into a hemispherical shape on a wider hollow base decorated with pulled or flatten prunts.  In the early 16th C this truly became an early Roemer when a foot was added formed by a trailed thread wound round a conical core.

The following examples are all from the Allaire Collection and are arranged more or less in chronological order. Things to look for in these examples are: bowl shapes, stems open or solid, prunts pulled, flatten or raspberry, engraving, and finally the type of foot. Below these pictures there are additional notes taken from Henkes-Glass Without Gloss, Utility glass from five Centuries excavated in the low countries 1300-1800. Harold E. Henkes, 1994 on factors on how to determent the age of a roemer.

Notes from Henkes book

* Roemers which have a convex bowl came into use before 1600.

* Until shortly before 1650 both berkemeyers and roemers retained pointed prunts.

* Raspberry prunts had been made prior to 1600.

* With few exceptions berkemeyers retained pointed prunts.

* Pincered notch foot rings used for all types disappeared before the mid 17th C (1650) being replaced by fused coil thread.

* Roemers with an egg-shaped bowl and coil foot became popular by 1600-1650.

SPRINKLER FLASKS FROM THE ROMAN PERIOD

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 26, 2016

Roman Sprinkler Flasks

The sprinkler is a unique type of flask in which there is a very small opening at the base of the neck to allow the contents of the vessel to emerge drop by drop. These flasks were popular during the 3rd & 4th Centuries and supposedly held perfume, oils and other costly liquids.  Roman glassmakers used a wide variety of decorations on the sprinklers such as mold blown designs, applied threads as well as pinching & tooling.

ROMAN SIMPULUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 24, 2016

ROMAN SIMPULUM of  Hans van Rossum

ROMAN SIMPULUM

Second half of 1st century – early 2nd century AD | Israel, found in Samaria

Size↑11.5 cm | ø 7.2 cm | Weight 56 g

Technique: Free blown, foot applied; tooled

Description: Transparent green glass, heavy and hollow outward folded rim, body set on a base-ring. The end of the handle made in the form of a snake-head. (Cobra) No pontil scar.

ROMAN SIMPULUM HANDLE

Condition:Some cracks in lower part of the body, professionally consolidated by Restaura – Haelen (NL) 2010. An overall good condition.

Remarks: A simpulum was used by a priest to ladle the wine out of a barrel into the patera or phiale and to pour wine over the head of a sacrificial animal before the augur examined the entrails for signs. It also belonged to the four attributes depicting on the backside of coins of Roman emperors, together with the lituus (R), the oinochoe (M) and the aspergillum (sprinkler). Most of the simpula were made of bronze or silver. Important production of silver examples in the area of Pompeii. A glass simpulum is rare.

Simpulum depicted on the backside of coins of Roman emperors

Simpulum depicted on the backside of coins of Roman emperors

Provenance: Jerusalem art market 2008

Published: Romeins Glas uit particulier bezit, J. van der Groen & H. van Rossum 2011, p. 133

Exhibited: Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), Romeins Glas, geleend uit particulier bezit, no. 269 29 April – 28 August 2011

Reference: Magiche Trasparenze, I vetri dell’antica Albingaunum, B. Massabò no. 76 for an identical example Vetri antichi di raccolte concordiesi e polesane, A. Larese & E. Zerbinatti, no. 15 p.  I Vetri Romani di Ercolano, L.A.S. Höricht, Tav. XXVII nos. 2342, 2345 and 2347 Rimsko steklo Slovenije, the Roman Glass of Slovenia, I. Lazar p. 23 C

GIANT DOUBLE-BODIED ROMAN BALSAMARIUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 23, 2016

GIANT DOUBLE-BODIED BALSAMARIUM of Nico F. Bijnsdorp

NFB 334 Roman double-bodied balsamariuml

5th – 6th century AD. Eastern Mediterranean, Syro-Palestinian area.

H total = 38.0 cm. H body = 12.8 cm. W max = 11.5 cm. Weight 378 gr.

 

Classification: Stern 2001: Class VI C 2.

Condition: Body with trail intact. Superstructure with few stress cracks and repaired breaks. Some overall surface wear, iridescence and incrustation.

Technique: Free blown and tooled. Handles and thread applied.

Description: Transparent natural bluish green glass. Body with double tube with hollow infolded rims. Solid flattened base without pontil mark. A thread of the same glass wound spirally around the body from bottom to rim in approximately 14 revolutions. On each side of body a coil handle applied 4 cm below the rim and attached with an angle to the rim edge. On top of the tubes an elaborate handle in 6 tiers. The first tier an m-shaped coil with additional reversed L-shaped coil at each side. The second tier with double looped coil applied from the right to the left. The third tier with triple looped coil applied from the left to the right. The fourth tier a single looped coil applied from the right to the left. The fifth tier a single looped coil applied from the left to the right. The top tier a basket handle applied from the right to the left. Excess glass from all coils drawn out thin and folded down on the coil below.

Remarks: This balsamarium belongs to the largest and most elaborate cosmetic tubes of its kind. Most probably it has never served as such since its complex superstructure makes it unusable for that purpose. A function to show craftsmanship and to display it as such is more likely. Balsamaria (also called kohl tube) were manufactured from the late third century until the seventh century AD. They functioned as container for black eye paint (kohl), which served both cosmetic and medicinal purposes, the latter by protecting the eyes against the sun and against insects. Balsamaria were made with one, two, three and four compartments. They were not designed for free standing and consequently needed handles for suspension. Through the ages Balsamaria became taller and heavier with more trails and coils and complicated superstructures.

Provenance: Private collection. Kando Gallery Jerusalem, 1982.

Published: Bonhams 7 July 2016, No. 66.,Christies 14 April 2011, No. 186.Christies 12 December 2002, No. 422.

References: Stern 2001, Ernesto Wolf Collection, Nos. 181-182. Christies 6 July 2016, Shlomo Moussaieff Collection, Nos. 293-296. Christies 22 April 2013, Saeed Motamed Collection, No. 20. Christies 28 April 2009, Plesch Collection, No.19.

WHAT ARE GLASS CANES ?

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 22, 2016

Wonderful Glass Canes

Glass canes have been used to make many different types of glass objects from the beginnings of glass making to the present day.  A cane is a hollow or solid thin rod of glass which can be clear and colorless, multi colored and opaque or mixtures of all of these. To make a cane a blob of molten glass attached to a pontil is stretched or drawn out to the desired thinness. These drawn rods can be twenty feet or more in length. The cold canes are then cut into the required lengths or thin slices depending on what is being made. There are as many different types of canes and procedures as there are objects made with them.  Glass canes are used to make millefiori, mosaic, air twist, opaque white or colored twist stems, and the Venetian filigrana glassware.

Additional information:

This is a link to a video made by Corning Museum of Glass on how canes are made and used.

For additional reading I highly  recommend one of the best books on the subject of cane making and Filigrana glass by Kitty Lameris,

“A Collection of Filigrana Glass, Kitty Lameris, Amsterdam, 2012″

The following examples of glassware made with canes are from the Allaire Collection and Museum collections.

ISLAMIC GLASS

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 15, 2016

Islamic Glass

Glass in the Islamic World: In the seventh century a new religion, Islam, arose in the Middle East out of the Arabian Peninsula. The founder of Islam, the prophet Muhammad died in 632.  Only a century later, his followers, called Muslims, had conquered a vast empire that extended from Central Asia in the east to Spain in the west.  At this time glassmaking was a flourishing industry in Egypt and the Middle East and many other areas that came under Islamic rule. Glass coming out of these areas from the seventh century onward is considered Islamic glass up to the Modern Era.  The early period, seventh to tenth century, especially shows a great deal of Roman influence in its shapes and decorative techniques. Islamic glassmakers also in this period went on to develop new forms and types of ornament while reviving or rediscovering ancient techniques and adding one new technique: staining.  Islamic glass can be divided into different periods:  Early Glass seventh to tenth century, Early Medieval Glass eleventh to mid-thirteenth century, Late Medieval Glass mid-thirteenth to fifteenth century, Late Glass sixteenth to nineteenth century.  The glass in the Islamic World is richly colored and decorated with rhythmically repeated patterns of geometric shapes, plants, animals, human, and quotations from the Koran. For further read on this subject: Islamic Glass, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Marilyn Jenkins, Fall 1982 and Islamic Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass Volume One, David Whitehouse 2010. The examples that follow are from The Corning Museum of Glass, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) and Allaire Collection. Click on the pictures to enlarge them.

 

ROMAN SIMPULUM

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 13, 2016

ROMAN SIMPULUM of  Hans van Rossum

ROMAN SIMPULUM

Second half of 1st century – early 2nd century AD | Israel, found in Samaria

Size↑11.5 cm | ø 7.2 cm | Weight 56 g

Technique: Free blown, foot applied; tooled

Description: Transparent green glass, heavy and hollow outward folded rim, body set on a base-ring. The end of the handle made in the form of a snake-head. (Cobra) No pontil scar.

ROMAN SIMPULUM HANDLE

Condition:Some cracks in lower part of the body, professionally consolidated by Restaura – Haelen (NL) 2010. An overall good condition.

Remarks: A simpulum was used by a priest to ladle the wine out of a barrel into the patera or phiale and to pour wine over the head of a sacrificial animal before the augur examined the entrails for signs. It also belonged to the four attributes depicting on the backside of coins of Roman emperors, together with the lituus (R), the oinochoe (M) and the aspergillum (sprinkler). Most of the simpula were made of bronze or silver. Important production of silver examples in the area of Pompeii. A glass simpulum is rare.

Simpulum depicted on the backside of coins of Roman emperors

Simpulum depicted on the backside of coins of Roman emperors

Provenance: Jerusalem art market 2008

Published: Romeins Glas uit particulier bezit, J. van der Groen & H. van Rossum 2011, p. 133

Exhibited: Thermenmuseum Heerlen (NL), Romeins Glas, geleend uit particulier bezit, no. 269 29 April – 28 August 2011

Reference: Magiche Trasparenze, I vetri dell’antica Albingaunum, B. Massabò no. 76 for an identical example Vetri antichi di raccolte concordiesi e polesane, A. Larese & E. Zerbinatti, no. 15 p.  I Vetri Romani di Ercolano, L.A.S. Höricht, Tav. XXVII nos. 2342, 2345 and 2347 Rimsko steklo Slovenije, the Roman Glass of Slovenia, I. Lazar p. 23 C

SPANISH GLASS 16th and 17th CENTURIES

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 10, 2016

SPANISH GLASS

Here we feature glassware made in Spain, made in the 16th and 17th centuries in many glassworks throughout the country.  These were principally in Catalonia, Castile, Andalucía and the Royal Factory at La Granja De San Ildefonso.  Spanish glass from these areas shows Moorish influence and later that of Venice, and to a limited extent Bohemia, but local styles were developed making it quite unique. The examples shown here are from The Metropolitan Art Museum and the Allaire Collection. In addition to the Met’s collection there is another fine collection of Spanish glass in New York City at The Hispanic Society of America.

GLASS OF THE BYZANTINE PERIOD & EARLY MIDDLE AGES

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 7, 2016

The Metropolitan Museum’s collection of medieval art, one of the richest in the world, encompasses the art of this long and complex period in all of its many phases, from its pre-Christian antecedents in Western Europe through the early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic periods.  This is the period between ancient and modern times in Western civilization, known as the Middle Ages. Extends from the fourth to the early sixteenth century, that is roughly from the Fall of Rome to the beginning of the Renaissance in Northern Europe.

In the Fall of 2000 new galleries for Byzantine and early European art opened at the Museum in a dramatically expanded and redesigned space that includes an intimate gallery under the Grand Staircase.  The period of time this covers is from the late 300’s to 800’s and shows the glass of the Byzantines, Franks, Langobards, Visigoths, Anglo-Saxons, and other peoples.  The examples are from these galleries.

ROMAN PYXIS WITH LID

Posted in Uncategorized by Allaire Collection of Glass on August 4, 2016

LIDDED PYXIS of  Hans van Rossum

Lidded Roman Pyxis

 

Mid-late 1st century AD | Eastern Mediterranean, probably Syria

Size↑9.5 cm (↑lid 5.6 cm ↑pyxis 6.2 cm) | ø 5.5 cm | Weight 38 g

 

Technique: Free blown, tooled

Description: Transparent yellow-brown glass for the pyxis and translucent amber for the lid. Small cylindrical container with a gently domed mouth with wide rounded opening, cut-out hollow tubular flange at the junction with the body and the base, base slightly indented, base ring folded outward. No pontil mark. Tall hollow lid with cut-out hollow flange at the midpoint. The upper part domed.

Condition: The lid is intact, the body of the pyxis with some small hairline cracks; nice silvery iridescence

Provenance: Malter Galleries Inc, Encino, CA. USA, auction 13 February 2011, lot 207 Collection Venice Beach USA formed between 1960s – 1970s, thence by descent

Reference: Fascinating Fragility, a Private Collection of Ancient Glass, N.F. Bijnsdorp, nos. NFB 096 & NFB 111 Verres Antiques et de l’Islam, Ancienne Collection de Monsieur D. (Jean Hubert Demeulenaere) no. 161 Ancient Glass at the Newark Museum, S. H. Auth, no. 145, inv. no. 50.1526a & b Glass from the Ancient World, The Ray Winfield Smith Collection cat. no. 64 (in opaque light blue)

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