GREEN ENGLISH WINES
In the many aspects of English glass making, the Eighteen Century stands out as representing an enormous variety of drinking vessels most of which were made of colorless glass. Appearing, for a short time mid-point in this century (1750-1760) wines manufactured in green glass became a fashionable choice. The following photos from the Allaire Collection show a variety of examples of green English wines made during this short period.
CAGE-CUP FRAGMENT of Nico F. Bijnsdorp
Early 4th century AD. Eastern Mediterranean, possibly Italy or Cologne.
H= 10.5 cm. L= 9.5 cm. Weight 78 gr.
Classification: Doppelfeld 1960: Group B4.
Condition: Small part broken off and glued. Internal crack and small hole restored.
Technique: Blown or cast. Wheel cut, ground and polished.
Description: Transparent colorless to yellowish amber glass.
The curve of the fragment indicates a diameter of the vessel of 13.5 cm, the straight wall
suggest more a beaker than a bowl. The curved, outsplayed rim rounded and polished.
Below the rim an openwork flange with an ovolo frieze containing fourteen egg-shaped
perforations (53 for the complete vessel) separated by darts. The body decorated with a
network cage, formed from circular meshes with a small cruciform motif at the junction of
each pair of meshes that conceals the post that connects the openwork cage with the
inner body. Concentric border above highest ring of (originally 15) meshes, where
additional posts are concealed under the V-shaped elements.
The manufacturing process of ancient cage cups was by cold-working of a thick-walled
blank by cutting and undercutting. That was a very slow and time consuming process
with risks of disaster throughout its manufacture. Consequently they were exorbitantly
expensive and were only owned by the very wealthiest of Roman society. The highly
specialized glasscutters (diatretarii) enjoyed high prestige and esteem. Only some ten
cage-cups are recorded in anything other than a fragmentary state and are all but one
part of museum collections.
This fragment was reportedly found in Turkey, Iskandaron Bay area.
Whitehouse 2015, CAGE CUPS, Late Roman Luxury Glasses, No. A-2.
In this book 65 fragments of cage cups are described, this one being the largest one and
the only one not belonging to a museum collection.
The Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the world’s largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The glass collection covers 4000 years of glass making, and has over 6000 items from Africa, Britain, Europe, America and Asia. The earliest glassware on display comes from Ancient Egypt and continues through the Ancient Roman, Medieval, and Renaissance covering areas such as Venetian glass and Bohemian glass and more recent periods, including Art Nouveau glass by Louis Comfort Tiffany and Émile Gallé. The Art Deco style is represented by several examples by René Lalique. There are many examples of crystal chandeliers displayed in the British and Venetian galleries attributed to Giuseppe Briati dated c1750. The stained glass collection is possibly the finest in the world, covering the medieval to modern periods, with examples from Europe as well as Britain. Several examples of English 16th-century heraldic glass are displayed in the British Galleries. Many well-known designers of stained glass are represented in the collection including, from the 19th century: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris. There is also an example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s work in the collection and other 20th-century designers. Most of the glass pictures below are from the museum’s own web site.
MOLD-BLOWN BOTTLE of Hans van Rossum
Late 3rd century – 4th century AD | Eastern Mediterranean, probably Syria
Size↑9.7 cm | ø 5.7 cm (body) | Weight 72 g
Technique: Body blown in a mold with two vertical sections. Neck and rim free blown, handles and coil applied.
Description: Transparent olive green glass, lens-shaped body, circular in front elevation. Cylindrical neck, flaring rim folded inward. Base indented with roughly cut off profile. Mold-blown decoration on body; on front and back, two concentric raised circles surrounded by rosette and twenty raised petals; on the perimeter, two rows of graduated circles with central bosses alternating with pairs of small bosses. Two opposed angular handles applied on the shoulder, drawn up and down, folded and applied to edge of rim. Probably the glassmaker had no good sense how to divide the amount of glass he needed; one handle is wide and massive, the other small and thin. The same with the trail around the neck; starting with a big drop, continuing in a thick coil, he ended the coil ring around the neck in a hairline trail. Pontil mark.
Condition: Intact, some slightly incrustation
Remarks: The same mold-blown design of concentric circles surrounded by a rosette was already used by the glass blowers during the first century AD. An example of this early mold-blown glass vessel is part of the Borowski Collection, no. V-52 and another one was part of the Collection of Monsieur Demeulenare no. 130. The early types however have different characteristics like form of the handles and the rim. They also does not have rows of circles on the sides. An identical example, made in blue glass, was formerly part of the Sheldon Breitbart Collection. It is striking identical with this example, except the way in which the handles are folded at the top. This blue one however is dated in the first century, so there is a friction in dating this type. Author of this book however prefers a dating in the third or fourth century AD, especially because of the thickness of the glass and the way in which the handles are formed. Mold-blown flasks with vague designs of concentric circles as on this example were first blown into a two-part patterned mold and after that inflated so the design could become barely visible.
Provenance: Private collection USA
Published: Arte Primitivo New York, auction 28 October 2009 lot 300
Reference: Glass from the Ancient World, the Ray Winfield Smith Collection, no. 253, H = 14.3 cm, The Breitbart Collection of Antiquities and Ancient Glass, Sotheby’s 20 June 1990, lot 85, Christie’s Antiquities, auction 8 April 1998 lot 15, Roman Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass – Vol. II, D. Whitehouse no. 638, Gorny & Mosch Munich, Auktion Kunst der Antike no. 202, 14. Dezember 2011 lot 113. H = 9.2 cm (one handle)
SMALL MANGANESE JUG of A Private Dutch Collection of Roman Glass
3th -4th Century AD, Eastern Mediterranean
Size: 9.3cm D = 7.2 cm
Intact: some weathering and nice iridescence
Description: Free-blown juglet with very thin handle, slightly concave bottom. Pontil mark present.
Provenance: the Vittorio Pafundi collection
Museum Honig Breethuis Zaandijk (NL), ‘Fascinating luxury from Antiquity’, 12 November 2011-30 January 2012, exp. no 23
Superior Galleries Beverley Hills Ca. Fine Antiquities (1994)
RARE UNGUENTARIUM of Joop van der Groen
Roman Empire, possibly north-east Italy or the Swiss canton Ticino │ 1st century AD
Size: ↑ 7,5 cm; Ø max. 4,0 cm; Ø rim 2,1 cm. │ Weight: 18 gram
Technique: Free blown. Tooled.
Classification: Variant of Isings (1957) form 6 and form 26 a.
Description: Transparent emeraldgreen glass. Squat bulbous body. Striking long tubular neck with constriction at bottom. Rim folded outward, upward and inward. Flat base, slightly indented. No pontil mark.
Condition: Intact with some weathering.
Remarks: This Roman perfume bottle is rare because of two reasons: the form and the colour. Only very few unguentaria of this form (with a very long tubular neck) have been founded.
Emeraldgreen is the least common colour in Roman glass. The colour has been achieved by addition of some percents iron oxide into bluish-green glass.
Provenance: 2006 Jürgen Haering Galerie am Museum, Freiburg (Germany).
Reference: Roman Glass in The Corning Museum of Glass – Vol. I (D. Whitehouse, 1997), no. 196 and no. 197.
Green Enameled Glass Flask
Green enameled glass bottle with screw top and cap. Enameled bottles of this type were produced in Bohemia, Germany and later in the US. The half post method was used for production.
H: 5 inches
D: Mid to late 18th Century
Ref: Merseyside # D27
GLASS ALBARELLO of Elisabeth & Theo Zandbergen
Origin: Tuscany or possibly Venice, Date: 3rd Q 17th century
Dimensions: H 15 cm.; largest ø 7,8 cm.; weight 112,4 gram
Material: soda glass
Remarks: Albarello’s were used in pharmacies in the old days. Most of those are ceramic. This glass albarello is one of the rare ones that survived. This glass type of arbarello was most probably used for liquids or medicine so that the content could be viewed, ie. that the components didn’t segregate or that discoloration could be observed. The ceramic ones were mainly used for (medicinal) creams also preventing a potential break down of the content from sunlight. The reason for the two bulbous forms at the top and bottom is to give a sturdier grip to the vessel but, could also have given a contribution to the mixing effect. (not tested) This way the albarello won’t slip from your hands that easily. The rim is flared out to enable the attachment of a piece of vellum tied down with a piece of rope to safeguard the contents of the albarello. This glass albarello is also demonstrating the copying of successful forms ie. from the larger ceramic ones. See pictures attached. The kicked-in bottom has a nice pontilmark.
Parallels: – Schaich, Glas des Alltags 2011, pg. 90, pict. 784, – Fragili Tranparenze, Vetri Antichi Toscana, pg. 104, pict.92,
– Gläser der Antike-Mittelalter und neuere Zeit, Katalog des Museums Stadt, Regensburg, Sammlung Brauer, pg. 29, pict. 42 ( 12,6 cm.)
Provenance: – ex coll. Friedleben, – Heilbronner Kunst- und Auktionshaus Fischer, auction 170
Examples: of Albarellos in ceramic from the collection of E. & MP.Z
LIDDED PYXIS of Nico F. Bijnsdorp
1st century AD. Eastern Mediterranean, perhaps Syria.
H = 10,3 cm. D max = 7,5 cm. D rim= 7,5 cm. D base 6,9 cm. Weight 124 gr.
Technique: Free blown. Tooled.
Description: Translucent natural olive-green glass with a swirl of amber for the pyxis; the lid translucent amber.
Small cylindrical container with a gently domed mouth with wide rounded opening, cut-out hollow tubular flange at the junction of the shoulder and body and also at the junction of the body and the flat base. No pontil mark. Tall hollow lid with cut-out hollow flange at the mid-point, that rests on top of the aperture of the pyxis, while the lower part extends inside; the upper part domed, terminating in a pincered knob.
Remarks: Glass pyxides are sometimes (erroneously) called inkwells, and the narrow mouth is consistent with this function (see Isings 1957 Form 77). The absence of specimens found in the Western Empire suggests that the type was made largely or wholly in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.
Provenance: Ex collection P.L.W. Arts, 2002.
Published: Arts 2000, A Collection of Ancient Glass, No. 25.
Reference: Auth 1976, Newark Museum, No. 145., Saldern 1974, Oppenländer Collection, No. 298., Loudmer 1985, Collection Monsieur D., No. 161., Whitehouse 1997, Corning Museum, No. 360.
VENETIAN SALVIATI GOBLET
Salviati is a family and a group of companies. They were glass makers and mosaicists who worked and sold their products in the cities of Murano, Venice and London.The firms were Salviati, Jesuram & Co., Venice and Murano Glass and Mosaic Co., Pauly&Co and today Arc International. The founder was Antonio Salviati.One of the most important family members was Giulio Salviati (1843-1898).
A good book on this very collectable glass is: Venetian Glass of the 1890’s: Salviati at Stanford University by Carol M. Osborne
The provenance of the Salviati goblet pictured is the Carder Collection.Fredrick Carder managed the Steuben Glass Works in Corning NY and developed many of their early designs and glass formulas.
H: 9 ¾ inches